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Pete Van Mullem and Chris Croft

progression of collegiate coaches; (b) discuss the role of the coach developer in collegiate sport; and (c) offer practical recommendations for those working as coach developers, to best serve collegiate coaches along their coaching journey. The recommendations support current coaching education literature

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Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel

expanded understanding of coach learning has led to both a reconceptualization of coach education and a reconfiguration of programming in many countries around the world (e.g.,  Callary, Culver, Werthner, & Bales, 2014 ; Werthner, Trudel, & Culver, 2012 ). Research approaches and recommendations for

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Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny

research. Thereafter, recommendations are provided for applied practice in sport. What Stereotypes Exist in Sport? There are many stereotypes about various groups in sport. In this paper, we maintain a broad definition of “sport” to include competitive team and individual sports, disabled sport, senior

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Sherry Robertson, Dan Benardot and Margo Mountjoy

The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.

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Marty K. Baker, Jeffrey A. Graham, Allison Smith and Zachary T. Smith

, Republic of Ireland, Scotland, United States, and Wales. National sport organization recommendations often influence the skill development and training practice trends in youth sport. This is certainly the case with youth football (i.e., soccer in North America). National governing bodies, such as USA

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Patricia Gaion, Michel Milistetd, Fernando Santos, Andressa Contreira, Luciane Arantes and Nayara Caruzzo

). Nevertheless, despite the evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for practice that have been made the last few years ( Coakley, 2016 ; Holt, Camiré, et al., 2017 ; Holt, Neely, et al., 2017 ), there is still the need to bridge the gap between research and practice (i.e., policy and coaching practice

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

the energy deficit. Thus, the aim of this review is to focus on recommendations for dietary protein intake in g protein/kg body mass. However, it is important to note that most higher protein weight loss diets still provide protein that is well within the AMDR. Current recommendations for protein

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Ann C. Grandjean

A three-part questionnaire was used to identify professionals in sports nutrition and survey their recommendations on various aspects of sports nutrition. The majority of respondents were women. Over half of the sample reported working in sports nutrition for 6 years or less, and 72% indicated that 40% or less of their job is dedicated to sports nutrition. A portion of the questionnaire assessed the subjects' opinions on various sports nutrition topics. Statements on water and electrolytes generated the most agreement while statements on protein generated the least agreement. There was a positive correlation (p~0.004) between level of education and whether or not the respondents recommended glycogen loading, and a positive correlation (p~0.008) between the subjects' use of dietary supplements and the fact that they recommended supplements to the athletes they counseled. The majority of professionals in this study worked with recreational athletes and were more concerned about encouraging a healthy diet than improving athletic performance.

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Barry Lavay and Peggy Lasko-McCarthey

To successfully conduct quality research, professionals in adapted physical activity (APA) must address a number of unique and challenging issues. These issues include difficulty in acquiring large and homogenous samples; developing valid, reliable, and commercially available test instruments and protocols specific to persons with disabilities; properly training doctoral students to conduct quality research; and maintaining a specific research focus. With regard to these issues, this paper provides the following recommendations: utilize alternative research designs; acquire adequate graduate research training; develop a research focus as an adapted physical activity researcher; and promote an interdisciplinary, collaborative research effort among professionals. Most important, through continued scholarly research adapted physical activity professionals will be able to expand the scientific body of knowledge.

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Floris C. Wardenaar, Rianne Dijkhuizen, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, Emma Jonk, Jeanne H.M. De Vries, Renger F. Witkamp and Marco Mensink

Purpose:

The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day.

Methods:

In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms.

Results:

In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82% of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress.

Conclusions:

Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.