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Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

global data for younger children. Global recommendations on physical activity for health have been established for 3 population age groups 3 (5–17 y, 18–64 y, and 65 y and older), but prior to 2019, the recommendation did not include children less than 5 years. Early childhood (<5 y) is a period of

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Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (the guidelines) outlines recommendations for the amount and types of physical activity necessary for good health based on the current scientific evidence. It includes specific physical activity dosages for youth and adults and additional

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Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny

research. Thereafter, recommendations are provided for applied practice in sport. What Stereotypes Exist in Sport? There are many stereotypes about various groups in sport. In this paper, we maintain a broad definition of “sport” to include competitive team and individual sports, disabled sport, senior

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Razinah Sharif, Kar Hau Chong, Nur Hadiyani Zakaria, Min Li Ong, John J. Reilly, Jyh Eiin Wong, Hazizi Abu Saad and Bee Koon Poh


The 2016 Malaysia Active Healthy Kids Report Card aims to collect, assess, and grade current and comprehensive data on physical activity (PA) and associated factors in Malaysian children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years.


This report card was developed following the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card protocol. The Research Working Group identified the core matrices, assessed the key data sources, and evaluated the evidence gathered for grade assignments. A grade was assigned to each indicator by comparing the best available evidence against relevant benchmark using a standardized grading scheme.


Overall Physical Activity, Active Transportation, and Sedentary Behavior were assigned the D grade. The lowest grade of F was assigned to Diet, while School and Government Strategies and Investments were graded higher with a B. Five indicators were assigned INC (incomplete) due to a lack of representative data.


The report card demonstrates that Malaysian children and adolescents are engaging in low levels of PA and active commuting, high levels of screen time, and have extremely low compliance with dietary recommendations. More efforts are needed to address the root causes of physical inactivity while increasing the opportunities for children and adolescents to be more physically active.

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Rebecca Stanley, Rachel Jones, Christian Swann, Hayley Christian, Julie Sherring, Trevor Shilton and Anthony Okely

highlight that recommendations are a guide. The main message should be that for greater health, a 24-hour period should include some screen time, and lots of physical activity and even more sleep. 16 The discourse between parents, early childhood educators, and professionals did not seem to be as definitive

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Alberto Grao-Cruces, Julio Conde-Caveda, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Román Nuviala, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Fátima Martín-Acosta and José Castro-Piñero

time (ie, time periods of noncurricular activities in school). However, the proportion of Spanish children who met these school-based PA recommendations in 2013–2014 was lower than 25% and 10%, respectively. 3 , 4 On the basis of this evidence, it would be interesting to have surveillance data

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard

optimized. Finally, we provided practical nutritional recommendations and suggestions for the next stage of research. To prepare this narrative review, a literature search was conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. Search terms included master or senior or older or veteran or

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Andrea Torres, Bethany Tennant, Isabela Ribeiro-Lucas, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Katrina Piercy and Bonny Bloodgood

their analysis and research recommendations for each research question. The summary included key findings, a synthesis of the evidence, rationale for evidence grades, and limitations. Research recommendations provided suggestions for conducting additional research to enhance the evidence base. The full

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Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

Activity Guidelines,” 12 appearing in this issue, summarizes survey findings related to contemplators’ awareness of the Guidelines, knowledge of physical activity, and knowledge of dosage recommendations. Methods To answer the 2 key research questions, ODPHP worked with a health education and

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John J. Reilly, Adrienne R. Hughes, Xanne Janssen, Kathryn R. Hesketh, Sonia Livingstone, Catherine Hill, Ruth Kipping, Catherine E. Draper, Anthony D. Okely and Anne Martin

The UK first published guidance on physical activity for the early years (birth–school-entry) in 2011. 1 This 2011 “Start Active, Stay Active” guidance was based largely on expert opinion, and limited to only a single quantitative recommendation, that 3–4 year olds should spend a minimum of 180