Sports supplements use is reality in the 21st century and the global sports world is enmeshed daily in media coverage and debate. Traditionally much of the focus has been on male athletes but the tide is shifting toward the rapidly evolving culture of the female athlete. Little is known about the use rates, reasons, and effects of sports performance supplements among females. This article examines female athletes and sports supplements with emphasis on historical influence, realities for the female athlete, risks involved in performance enhancement, and future recommendations.
Mike A. Perko, Ronald D. Williams Jr. and Marion W. Evans
Melanie L. Sartore and George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of weight discrimination on perceived attributions, person–job fit, and hiring recommendations. Three experiments were undertaken to investigate these issues with people applying for positions in fitness organizations (i.e., aerobics instructor and personal trainer). In all three studies qualified people who were overweight, relative to their qualified and sometimes unqualified thin counterparts, were perceived to have less desirable attributes (e.g., lazy), were thought to be a poorer fit for the position, and were less likely to receive a hiring recommendation. These relationships were influenced by applicant expertise and applicant sex in some cases. Implications for the fitness industry are discussed.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin and Kim Graber
Occupational socialization theory describes the acculturation, professional preparation, and organizational socialization of physical education teachers and addresses factors that contribute to their decisions and behaviors. Utilizing occupational socialization theory as a grounding framework, this paper summarizes research conducted on teacher socialization in physical education and provides recommendations for future research. Each of the three phases of socialization is reviewed as are related constructs. The paper concludes with a discussion of socialization into physical education more generally and addresses the limitations of the current body of literature. Future researchers are encouraged to continue using occupational socialization theory as a framework though which to understand the careers and pedagogical decisions of physical education teachers.
Melissa Pangelinan, Marc Norcross, Megan MacDonald, Mary Rudisill, Danielle Wadsworth and James McDonald
program. Summary and Recommendations The programs at AU and OSU have implemented different approaches to undergraduate experiential learning. While both programs incorporate the eight best practices outlined by the NSEE, the structure of the undergraduate programs, the faculty and staff needed to develop
George B. Cunningham, Melanie L. Sartore and Brian P. McCullough
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of job applicant sexual orientation on subsequent evaluations and hiring recommendations. Data were gathered from 106 students (48 men, 57 women) who participated in a 2 (applicant sexual orientation: heterosexual, sexual minority) × 2 (rater gender: female, male) × 2 (applicant gender: female, male) experiment related to the hiring of a personal trainer for a fitness organization. Analysis of variance indicated that sexual minority job applicants received poorer evaluations than did heterosexuals. These effects were moderated by the rater gender, as men provided harsher ratings of sexual minorities than did women. Finally, applicant ratings were reliably related to hiring recommendations. Results are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature, limitations, and future directions.
Evan K. Perrault
Despite being the largest subset of the NCAA, Division III sports programs have had very little research dedicated to them regarding student attendance motivations. This study surveyed 620 undergraduate students at a midsize Division III school (total enrollment 10,902) to determine their attitudes toward attending athletic events and potential motivators for getting them into the stands. Students who had personally interacted with an athlete or coach had better attitudes toward university athletics than those who had not. Results also supported predictions of the theory of planned behavior, finding that attitudes toward individual sports were the strongest predictor of intentions to attend future games. Open-ended responses also asked students why they do not attend games and what would get them to attend more games. Analyses of these responses are followed by key recommendations for communications professionals at similar-size institutions seeking ways to increase student attendance at their athletic events.
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Yu Kyoum Kim
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review of how consumer satisfaction research in the sport management and the nonsport literatures has developed over the past several decades, and, with that information, to propose a new comparison standard in the formation of sport consumer satisfaction. Though several alternative explanations of consumer satisfaction have been developed, expectancy-disconfirmation framework is the theoretical foundation most used in consumer satisfaction research. However, expectancy-disconfirmation theory does not allow researchers to fully assess the potential complexity of sport consumer satisfaction. Therefore, in addition to recommendations for improving the application of expectancy-disconfirmation, we also propose counterfactual thinking as an alternative comparison standard in determining sport consumer satisfaction. The proposed framework contributes to the literature on sport consumer behavior by illustrating how sport consumers use a “what might have been” rather than “what was” heuristic to explain satisfaction judgments with their sport consumption experiences.
Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett
( Dziedzic & Higham, 2014 ). Due to a heavy reliance on carbohydrates as a fuel source during high-intensity exercise such as intermittent sport competition, post-exercise replenishment of carbohydrate stores immediately following each competition is vital. Current recovery nutrition recommendations suggest
Tanya Prewitt-White, Christopher P. Connolly, Yuri Feito, Alexandra Bladek, Sarah Forsythe, Logan Hamel and Mary Ryan McChesney
Pregnant women are recommended to engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week ( Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2008 ). An impressive array of health benefits during pregnancy and at childbirth supports this recommendation, including a reduced
Jenessa Banwell, Gretchen Kerr and Ashley Stirling
of female coaches’ mentoring relationships; 2) Outcomes of mentorship for female coaches; and 3) Recommendations for mentorship of women in coaching. Characteristics of Female Coaches’ Mentoring Relationships Number of Mentors Female coaches were surveyed across Canada to explore their experiences