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Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

global data for younger children. Global recommendations on physical activity for health have been established for 3 population age groups 3 (5–17 y, 18–64 y, and 65 y and older), but prior to 2019, the recommendation did not include children less than 5 years. Early childhood (<5 y) is a period of

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Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (the guidelines) outlines recommendations for the amount and types of physical activity necessary for good health based on the current scientific evidence. It includes specific physical activity dosages for youth and adults and additional

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Razinah Sharif, Kar Hau Chong, Nur Hadiyani Zakaria, Min Li Ong, John J. Reilly, Jyh Eiin Wong, Hazizi Abu Saad and Bee Koon Poh

Background:

The 2016 Malaysia Active Healthy Kids Report Card aims to collect, assess, and grade current and comprehensive data on physical activity (PA) and associated factors in Malaysian children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years.

Methods:

This report card was developed following the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card protocol. The Research Working Group identified the core matrices, assessed the key data sources, and evaluated the evidence gathered for grade assignments. A grade was assigned to each indicator by comparing the best available evidence against relevant benchmark using a standardized grading scheme.

Results:

Overall Physical Activity, Active Transportation, and Sedentary Behavior were assigned the D grade. The lowest grade of F was assigned to Diet, while School and Government Strategies and Investments were graded higher with a B. Five indicators were assigned INC (incomplete) due to a lack of representative data.

Conclusions:

The report card demonstrates that Malaysian children and adolescents are engaging in low levels of PA and active commuting, high levels of screen time, and have extremely low compliance with dietary recommendations. More efforts are needed to address the root causes of physical inactivity while increasing the opportunities for children and adolescents to be more physically active.

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Sherry Robertson, Dan Benardot and Margo Mountjoy

The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.

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Rebecca Stanley, Rachel Jones, Christian Swann, Hayley Christian, Julie Sherring, Trevor Shilton and Anthony Okely

highlight that recommendations are a guide. The main message should be that for greater health, a 24-hour period should include some screen time, and lots of physical activity and even more sleep. 16 The discourse between parents, early childhood educators, and professionals did not seem to be as definitive

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Alberto Grao-Cruces, Julio Conde-Caveda, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Román Nuviala, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Fátima Martín-Acosta and José Castro-Piñero

time (ie, time periods of noncurricular activities in school). However, the proportion of Spanish children who met these school-based PA recommendations in 2013–2014 was lower than 25% and 10%, respectively. 3 , 4 On the basis of this evidence, it would be interesting to have surveillance data

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

the energy deficit. Thus, the aim of this review is to focus on recommendations for dietary protein intake in g protein/kg body mass. However, it is important to note that most higher protein weight loss diets still provide protein that is well within the AMDR. Current recommendations for protein

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard

optimized. Finally, we provided practical nutritional recommendations and suggestions for the next stage of research. To prepare this narrative review, a literature search was conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. Search terms included master or senior or older or veteran or

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Ann C. Grandjean

A three-part questionnaire was used to identify professionals in sports nutrition and survey their recommendations on various aspects of sports nutrition. The majority of respondents were women. Over half of the sample reported working in sports nutrition for 6 years or less, and 72% indicated that 40% or less of their job is dedicated to sports nutrition. A portion of the questionnaire assessed the subjects' opinions on various sports nutrition topics. Statements on water and electrolytes generated the most agreement while statements on protein generated the least agreement. There was a positive correlation (p~0.004) between level of education and whether or not the respondents recommended glycogen loading, and a positive correlation (p~0.008) between the subjects' use of dietary supplements and the fact that they recommended supplements to the athletes they counseled. The majority of professionals in this study worked with recreational athletes and were more concerned about encouraging a healthy diet than improving athletic performance.

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Andrea Torres, Bethany Tennant, Isabela Ribeiro-Lucas, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Katrina Piercy and Bonny Bloodgood

their analysis and research recommendations for each research question. The summary included key findings, a synthesis of the evidence, rationale for evidence grades, and limitations. Research recommendations provided suggestions for conducting additional research to enhance the evidence base. The full