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Leou-Chyr Lin, Thomas P. Hedman, Shyu-Jye Wang, Michael Huoh and Shih-Youeng Chuang

The goal of this study was to develop a nondestructive radial compression technique and to investigate the viscoelastic behavior of the rat tail disc under repeated radial compression. Rat tail intervertebral disc underwent radial compression relaxation testing and creep testing using a custom-made gravitational creep machine. The axisymmetric viscoelasticity and time-dependent recovery were determined. Different levels of hydration (with or without normal saline spray) were supplied to evaluate the effect of changes in viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity was found to be axisymmetric in rat-tail intervertebral discs at four equidistant locations. Complete relaxation recovery was found to take 20 min, whereas creep recovery required 25 min. Hydration was required for obtaining viscoelastic axisymmetry and complete viscoelastic recovery.

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Richelle M. Williams, R. Curtis Bay and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

effective concussion management rely on self-reported symptoms; therefore monitoring and tracking symptoms from the time of injury and throughout recovery is critical. While every concussion presents differently and each patient’s response varies based on a myriad of personal and injury-related factors

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Jordan Bettleyon and Thomas W. Kaminski

Clinical Scenario Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been a controversial topic for its use in athletic recovery, mainly due to the inconsistency in research regarding the timing of application for this modality. Articles on LLLT have assessed its effectiveness in untrained humans through pain

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Ann M. Quinn and Barry J. Fallon


To explore predictors of recovery time.


Repeated measures on 4 occasions throughout recovery included injury appraisal, demographics, emotional responses, and psychological variables.


Elite injured athletes (N = 136).

Main Outcome Measure:

Recovery time.


At all phases, being a team athlete was a significant predictor of faster recovery. At partial recovery (approximately one-third of the recovery time), significant predictors were active coping, confidence of reaching full recovery in the estimated time, not completing rehabilitation, and having less social support. By semirecovery (approximately two-thirds of the recovery time), vigor and using denial significantly predicted quicker recovery. At recovery, having previously suffered a serious nonsporting injury or illness, vigor, more confidence, and intensity of effort significantly predicted faster recovery.


This study has expanded on and refined the work in this area and will help increase understanding of the role that psychological variables play in decreasing recovery time, which has important implications for those implementing rehabilitation programs.

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Corey P. Ochs, Melissa C. Kay and Johna K. Register-Mihalik

resulting time out of play and the potential athletic consequences following this time loss. Concussions in professional sports, such as football and ice hockey, are unique due to players’ job security relying on their ability to perform. Typically, initial clinical recovery occurs within 7 to 10 days 3

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Steven Nagib and Shelley W. Linens

Clinical Scenario Although headache is the most commonly reported symptom associated with concussion, dizziness comes in at a close second with report rates between 66% and 77%. 1 This statistic is concerning as dizziness may be a predictor of prolonged recovery. 1 Any patient, who has symptoms

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Berkiye Kirmizigil, Jeffry Roy Chauchat, Omer Yalciner, Gozde Iyigun, Ender Angin and Gul Baltaci

with DOMS. 3 These symptoms generally appear within the first 24 hours postexercise, 3 , 4 peak 24 to 72 hours postexercise, 1 , 3 , 4 and disappear from 5 to 7 days postexercise. 3 , 4 Recovery techniques may help to expedite the process. 3 There are many causes for the psychological discomfort

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Landon Lempke, Abbis Jaffri and Nicholas Erdman

is necessary to prevent a protracted recovery. 1 For the past several decades, physical rest has been prescribed as a mainstay for SRC management. 1 More recently, rest has been divided into cognitive and physical components. Cognitive rest may include restricting daily living activities, such as

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Ashley L. Santo, Melissa L. Race and Elizabeth F. Teel

the examiner notices an eye deviating outward (exophoria). The distance measured from the target to the patient’s nose when it appears double or exophoria is noticed and recorded as the NPC break. NPC recovery is the point measured from the tip of the nose to the target when the target appears single

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

regulatory factors, and increases the formation of new red blood cells locally. 2 These effects make PBMT a valuable treatment option for muscle recovery; however, PBMT has not become a mainstream tool for muscle recovery in clinical practice. For decades, cryotherapy has been a popular modality for