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Argyris G. Toubekis, Argiro Tsolaki, Ilias Smilios, Helen T. Douda, Thomas Kourtesis and Savvas P. Tokmakidis

Purpose:

To examine the effects of active and passive recovery of various durations after a 100-m swimming test performed at maximal effort.

Methods:

Eleven competitive swimmers (5 males, 6 females, age: 17.3 ± 0.6 y) completed two 100-m tests with a 15-min interval at a maximum swimming effort under three experimental conditions. The recovery between tests was 15 min passive (PAS), 5 min active, and 10 min passive (5ACT) or 10 min active and 5 min passive (10ACT). Self-selected active recovery started immediately after the first test, corresponding to 60 ± 5% of the 100-m time. Blood samples were taken at rest, 5, 10, and 15 min after the first as well as 5 min after the second 100-m test for blood lactate determination. Heart rate was also recorded during the corresponding periods.

Results:

Performance time of the first 100 m was not different between conditions (P > .05). The second 100-m test after the 5ACT (64.49 ± 3.85 s) condition was faster than 10ACT (65.49 ± 4.63 s) and PAS (65.89 ± 4.55 s) conditions (P < .05). Blood lactate during the 15-min recovery period between the 100-m efforts was lower in both active recovery conditions compared with passive recovery (P < .05). Heart rate was higher during the 5ACT and 10ACT conditions compared with PAS during the 15-min recovery period (P < .05).

Conclusion:

Five minutes of active recovery during a 15-min interval period is adequate to facilitate blood lactate removal and enhance performance in swimmers. Passive recovery and/or 10 min of active recovery is not recommended.

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Rob Duffield, Johann Edge, Robert Merrells, Emma Hawke, Matt Barnes, David Simcock and Nicholas Gill

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to determine whether compression garments improve intermittent-sprint performance and aid performance or self-reported recovery from high-intensity efforts on consecutive days.

Methods:

Following familiarization, 14 male rugby players performed two randomized testing conditions (with or without garments) involving consecutive days of a simulated team sport exercise protocol, separated by 24 h of recovery within each condition and 2 weeks between conditions. Each day involved an 80-min high-intensity exercise circuit, with exercise performance determined by repeated 20-m sprints and peak power on a cart dynamometer (single-man scrum machine). Measures of nude mass, heart rate, skin and tympanic temperature, and blood lactate (La) were recorded throughout each day; also, creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness were recorded each day and 48 h following exercise.

Results:

No differences (P = .20 to 0.40) were present between conditions on either day of the exercise protocol for repeated 20-m sprint efforts or peak power on a cart dynamometer. Heart rate, tympanic temperature, and body mass did not significantly differ between conditions; however, skin temperature was higher under the compression garments. Although no differences (P = .50) in La or CK were present, participants felt reduced levels of perceived muscle soreness in the ensuing 48 h postexercise when wearing the garments (2.5 ± 1.7 vs 3.5 ± 2.1 for garment and control; P = .01).

Conclusions:

The use of compression garments did not improve or hamper simulated team-sport activity on consecutive days. Despite benefits of reduced self-reported muscle soreness when wearing garments during and following exercise each day, no improvements in performance or recovery were apparent.

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Ine Wigernæs, Sigmund B. Strømme and Arne T. Høstmark

The present study investigated the effect of active recovery (AR) as compared to rest recovery (RR) upon FFA concentrations following moderate- (MI) or high-intensity (HI) running. Fourteen well-trained males (23.7±6 years. V̇O2max = 69.5±1.8ml · min−1kg−1) were randomly assigned into two trials (HI = 30 min at 82% of V̇O2max; MI = 60 min at 75% of V̇O2max). Within each group, the subject completed two sets of experiments of running followed by either AR (15 min running at 50% of V̇O2max) or RR (complete rest in the supine position). Plasma volume changes after the exercise did not deviate between the AR or RR trials. In both the HI and Ml trials, AR resulted in lower FFA peaks and lower overall FFA concentrations while performing AR (p<.05). However, upon discontinuing AR. there was a rise in the FFA concentration. At 120-min post-exercise, the FFA concentrations after AR and RR were not significantly different. The changes in the FFA/albumin ratio were similar to the FFA responses. It is concluded that AR may counteract the rise in FFA 5–15 minutes after exercise.

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Samuel Erith, Clyde Williams, Emma Stevenson, Siobhan Chamberlain, Pippa Crews and Ian Rushbury

This study examined the effect of high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices (GI) on recovery of performance during prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Seven male semi-professional soccer players (age 23 ± 2 y, body mass [BM] 73.7 ± 9.0 kg and maximal oxygen uptake 58 ± 1.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1) participated in two trials in a randomized cross-over design. On day 1, the subjects performed 90 min of an intermittent high-intensity shuttle running protocol [Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST)]. They then consumed a mixed high carbohydrate recovery diet (8 g/kg BM) consisting of either high (HGI) (GI: 70) or low (LGI) (GI: 35) GI foods. Twenty-two hours later (day 2) the subjects completed 75 min of the LIST (part A) followed by alternate sprinting and jogging to fatigue (part B). No differences were found between trials in time to fatigue (HGI 25.3 ± 4.0 min vs. LGI 22.9 ± 5.6 min, P = 0.649). Similarly, no differences were found between trials for sprint performance and distance covered during part B of the LIST. In conclusion, the GI of the diet during the 22 h recovery did not affect sprint and endurance performance the following day.

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

Definition of Central Terms Recovery is regarded as a multifaceted (eg, physiological, psychological) restorative process relative to time. In case an individual’s recovery status (ie, his or her biopsychosocial balance) is disturbed by external or internal factors, fatigue as a condition of

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Jan Kodejška, Jiří Baláš and Nick Draper

Cold water immersion (CWI) is included as a recovery protocol for many sports. 1 Positive effects of CWI have been observed after endurance exercise to failure such as for cycling, 2 running, 3 or rock climbing, 4 , 5 however, other research has not supported this finding. 1 Consequently

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Carolina F. Wilke, Felipe Augusto P. Fernandes, Flávio Vinícius C. Martins, Anísio M. Lacerda, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Samuel P. Wanner and Rob Duffield

Postexercise recovery is a complex process involving the return of performance, physiological, or perceptual perturbations to near preexercise values. 1 This concept is made opaque by the multifactorial nature and varying timelines of different parameters. 2 For example, a recent meta-analysis on

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Ryan G. Overmayer and Matthew W. Driller

During congested competition schedules, like those often experienced at events such as the Olympic Games, recovery strategies are thought to alleviate postexercise fatigue and enhance subsequent performance. 1 , 2 The Omnium is a multirace event in track cycling at the Olympic Games, with short

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Eric Kyle O’Neal, Samantha Louise Johnson, Brett Alan Davis, Veronika Pribyslavska and Mary Caitlin Stevenson-Wilcoxson

heavily in moderate to hot environments is to determine if adequate recovery fluid intake (ARFI) is consistently achieved between training bouts. For runners or coaches and sports medicine staff working with runners, a simple and objective method to determine if ARFI has taken place between training bouts

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Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza and Michael Kellmann

, and appropriate adjustments to fatigue can be planned subsequently. 6 , 8 A major field of monitoring does not aim at a direct performance enhancement. Rather, training load and subsequent fatigue are assessed via monitoring and can be used to quantify the recovery status (eg, high vs low recovered