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Kathleen A. Swanik, Kellie Huxel Bliven and Charles Buz Swanik


There are contradictory data on optimal muscle-activation strategies for restoring shoulder stability. Further investigation of neuromuscular-control strategies for glenohumeral-joint stability will guide clinicians in decisions regarding appropriate rehabilitation exercises.


To determine whether subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor (anteroposterior force couple) muscle activation differ between 4 shoulder exercises and describe coactivation ratios and individual muscle-recruitment characteristics of rotator-cuff muscles throughout each shoulder exercise.






healthy, physically active men, age 20.55 ± 2.0 y.


4 rehabilitation exercises: pitchback, PNF D2 pattern with tubing, push-up plus, and slide board.

Main Outcomes Measures:

Mean coactivation level, coactivation-ratio patterns, and level (area) of muscle-activation patterns of the subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor throughout each exercise.


Coactivation levels varied throughout each exercise. Subscapularis activity was consistently higher than that of the infraspinatus and teres minor combined at the start of each exercise and in end ranges of motion. Individual muscle-recruitment levels in the subscapularis were also different between exercises.


Results provide descriptive data for determining normative coactivation-ratio values for muscle recruitment for the functional exercises studied. Differences in subscapularis activation suggest a reliance to resist anteriorly directed forces.

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Nima Dehghansai and Joseph Baker

better understand this cohort as well as to identify targeting and recruitment strategies for future events. The results from this study suggest that the Paralympian Search is meeting its objective of capturing athletes from a wide range of groups, with a wide range of experiences. The current findings

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Byron Lai, Eunbi Lee, Mayumi Wagatsuma, Georgia Frey, Heidi Stanish, Taeyou Jung and James H. Rimmer

. Rich and diverse adaptive programs 3. Strategies to increase intervention reach 1. Generalizability 2. Transferability 3. Scientific rigor 1. Long-term and sustainable postintervention outcomes 2. Precision-based interventions 3. Scalable interventions and recruitment strategies Promising Elements of

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Jill L. McNitt-Gray

The target article, thoughtfully constructed by Dr. Prilutsky, effectively synthesizes available data on multijoint movements regarding coordination patterns of major two- and one-joint muscles, provides evidence for an optimization criterion that predicts critical features of muscle activation patterns, and explores the functional consequences of muscle coordination. This work also provides a clear set of definitions and an organizational framework that is currently needed for a productive interdisciplinary discussion regarding the underlying control mechanisms used during realistic multijoint movements. Although identification of an optimization criterion that predicts muscle recruitment strategies would greatly simplify control logic required for rehabilitation and musculoskeletal modeling, our experimental data during landings indicate more than one criterion may exist. Preliminary review of our experimental landing data suggests the rules identified by Prilutsky apparently hold for some subjects during portions of the landing movements. The presence of more than one muscle activation pattern used to achieve the same NJMs demonstrates there may be more than one optimization criterion that predicts critical features of muscle activation patterns. The functional consequences of more than one control criterion may also prove to be an asset, particularly when adapting to different environmental constraints.

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Melissa DiFabio, Lindsay V. Slater, Grant Norte, John Goetschius, Joseph M. Hart and Jay Hertel

recruitment strategies. 37 – 39 This supports that the ACLR participants may have utilized similar recruitment patterns to complete the different performance tests, therefore dependent variables loaded somewhat consistently on factors. The healthy group did not have consistent factor loading, which may be

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Stephen M. Suydam, Kurt Manal and Thomas S. Buchanan

.5%) at the subjects’ maximal effort requires a repeated contraction intensity and recruitment strategy. Our data are consistent with previous running gait findings yielding a within-day average knee flexion CV of 10.7% 20 , 26 and jumping data that have reported consistent knee and ankle kinematics

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Jan Wilke, Philipp Niemeyer, Daniel Niederer, Robert Schleip and Winfried Banzer

, effect size f  = 0.4, assumed dropout rate: 10%) was conducted using G*Power 3.1.5 (University of Düsseldorf, Germany). Based on its result, 17 healthy, physically active (7 [4] h/wk) adults (10 females; age: 25 [2] y, body mass index: 23.5 [2.8] kg/m 2 ) were included in the trial. Recruitment

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Leanne Sawle, Jennifer Freeman and Jonathan Marsden

) presence of adverse events (4) effect size estimate (5) feasibility of using the outcome measures (6) effectiveness of the blinding strategy (7) practicality of the protocol Method Sampling and Recruitment Strategy A convenience sample of volunteers was recruited from UK-based sports clubs over 1 year. The

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Sahar Boozari, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Ali Amiri and Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani

injury . Clin Biomech . 2003 ; 18 ( 6 ): 511 – 517 . doi:10.1016/S0268-0033(03)00071-8 10.1016/S0268-0033(03)00071-8 32. Padua DA , Carcia CR , Arnold BL , Granata KP . Gender differences in leg stiffness and stiffness recruitment strategy during two-legged hopping . J Mot Behav . 2005 ; 37 ( 2

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Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

; weight  70.7 [15.1] kg) who met the inclusion criteria were tested. Given the limited evidence on Hi-lo and LRE tests, otherwise healthy individuals were recruited to explore measurement issues in varying test positions prior to using a patient population. The recruitment strategy included community