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Brice Guignard, Bjørn H. Olstad, David Simbaña Escobar, Jessy Lauer, Per-Ludvik Kjendlie and Annie H. Rouard


To investigate electromyographical (EMG) profiles characterizing the lower-limb flexion-extension in an aquatic environment in high-level breaststrokers.


The 2-dimensional breaststroke kick of 1 international- and 2 national-level female swimmers was analyzed during 2 maximal 25-m swims. The activities of biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were recorded.


The breaststroke kick was divided in 3 phases, according to the movements performed in the sagittal plane: push phase (PP) covering 27% of the total kick duration, glide phase (GP) 41%, and recovery phase (RP) 32%. Intrasubject reproducibility of the EMG and kinematics was observed from 1 stroke cycle to another. In addition, important intersubject kinematic reproducibility was noted, whereas muscle activities discriminated the subjects: The explosive Pp was characterized by important muscle-activation peaks. During the recovery, muscles were likewise solicited for swimmers 1 (S1) and 2 (S2), while the lowest activities were observed during GP for S2 and swimmer 3 (S3), but not for S1, who maintained major muscle solicitations.


The main muscle activities were observed during PP to perform powerful lower-limb extension. The most-skilled swimmer (S1) was the only 1 to solicit her muscles during GP to actively reach better streamlining. Important activation peaks during RP correspond to the limbs acting against water drag. Such differences in EMG strategies among an elite group highlight the importance of considering the muscle parameters used to effectively control the intensity of activation among the phases for a more efficient breaststroke kick.

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Nima Dehghansai and Joseph Baker

better understand this cohort as well as to identify targeting and recruitment strategies for future events. The results from this study suggest that the Paralympian Search is meeting its objective of capturing athletes from a wide range of groups, with a wide range of experiences. The current findings

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Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods

this chapter, it is important to differentiate marketing from recruitment. Although marketing can be viewed as a recruitment strategy, it is often housed outside PETE which positions it as separate from the academic unit. Staff in the registrar’s or enrollment manager’s office commonly represents their

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K. Andrew R. Richards and Kim C. Graber

, & Wayda, 2015 ), recruiting and retaining highly qualified PETE students represents an important goal for the physical education community. As part of this larger monograph focused on recruitment and retention, the current investigation focused on PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of recruitment

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Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers and Chad M. Killian

). The researchers utilized a semistructured interview guide ( Patton, 2015 ) designed to examine the PETE program coordinators’ perceptions regarding contributing factors to decreased PETE enrollments, their individual roles in student recruitment, recruitment strategies they utilize, and barriers they

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Byron Lai, Eunbi Lee, Mayumi Wagatsuma, Georgia Frey, Heidi Stanish, Taeyou Jung and James H. Rimmer

. Rich and diverse adaptive programs 3. Strategies to increase intervention reach 1. Generalizability 2. Transferability 3. Scientific rigor 1. Long-term and sustainable postintervention outcomes 2. Precision-based interventions 3. Scalable interventions and recruitment strategies Promising Elements of

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Alex C. Garn, Nate McCaughtry, Noel L. Kulik, Michele Kaseta, Kim Maljak, Laurel Whalen, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin and Mariane Fahlman

Grounded in social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study was to examine leaders’ and students’ perspectives of factors that contribute to effective voluntary after-school physical activity clubs. Data were collected over two-years via field observations (n= 115) and interviews with students (n = 278) and adult leaders (n = 126). Results highlighted interconnections among personal and environmental facilitators such as enthusiastic and caring leaders, multidimensional recruiting strategies, supportive and friendly club climates, and culturally relevant physical activities. Structural barriers such as a lack of administrative support, student hunger, and inadequate transportation options were also identified by leaders and students. While previous after-school physical activity club research has focused primarily on measuring physical activity increases, these students and leaders voiced valuable perspectives that contribute to understand why some initiatives fail and others succeed from a social cognitive theory perspective.

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Amelia Mays Woods and Suzan F. Ayers

( 2016 ) endorse active recruitment strategies that PETE faculty members, in collaboration with K-12 teachers and community college contacts, can incorporate to improve PETE enrollments. Retaining students who enter teacher education programs is also a means to support the completion of teaching degrees

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Kim C. Graber and Ben D. Kern

recruitment strategies, including those that involved PETE faculty members and in-service teachers, the extent to which PETE programs employed marketing and communication strategies, and perceived barriers to faculty member involvement in recruitment. Following the sections on recruitment, the participants

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K. Andrew R. Richards and Thomas J. Templin

recruitment strategies might include: (a) having conversations with students who have diverse physical activity backgrounds about possible careers in physical education, (b) providing “job shadowing” opportunities, (c) sharing physical education resources (e.g., journal articles, physical education websites