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Brenda Lindstrom, Karen Chad, Nigel Ashworth, Bobbi Dunphy, Elizabeth Harrison, Bruce Reeder, Sandi Schultz, Suzanne Sheppard and Kori Fisher

Background:

Engaging sedentary individuals in physical activity (PA) is challenging and problematic for research requiring large, representative samples. For research projects to be carried out in reasonable timeframes, optimum recruitment methods are needed. Effective recruitment strategies involving PA interventions for older adults have not been determined.

Purpose:

To compare the effectiveness of recruitment strategies for a PA intervention.

Methods:

Two recruitment strategies, print media and personal contact, targeted health-care professionals and the general public.

Results:

The strategies generated 581 inquiries; 163 were randomized into the study. Advertising to the general public via print materials and group presentations accounted for 78% of the total inquiries. Referrals from physicians and health-care professionals resulted in 22% of the inquiries.

Conclusion:

Mass distribution of print material to the general public, enhanced by in-person contact, was the most effective recruitment strategy. These findings suggest various recruitment strategies targeting the general population should be employed.

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Marcia S. Marx, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield and Jack M. Guralnik

The article describes the process of identifying 100 community-dwelling elderly adults at risk for physical disability, yet not functionally disabled, for participation in a research project to develop appropriate exercise programs for at-risk elderly. Over a period of 14 months, initial contact was made with 941 older adults, 11% of whom (101 people) were eligible for and willing to complete all stages of the study protocol. The most successful recruitment strategies were a mass mailing followed by a telephone call and advertising in a newspaper with a large circulation (rather than a local paper). Aspects of the recruitment and retention of study participants are discussed.

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Brice Guignard, Bjørn H. Olstad, David Simbaña Escobar, Jessy Lauer, Per-Ludvik Kjendlie and Annie H. Rouard

Purpose:

To investigate electromyographical (EMG) profiles characterizing the lower-limb flexion-extension in an aquatic environment in high-level breaststrokers.

Methods:

The 2-dimensional breaststroke kick of 1 international- and 2 national-level female swimmers was analyzed during 2 maximal 25-m swims. The activities of biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were recorded.

Results:

The breaststroke kick was divided in 3 phases, according to the movements performed in the sagittal plane: push phase (PP) covering 27% of the total kick duration, glide phase (GP) 41%, and recovery phase (RP) 32%. Intrasubject reproducibility of the EMG and kinematics was observed from 1 stroke cycle to another. In addition, important intersubject kinematic reproducibility was noted, whereas muscle activities discriminated the subjects: The explosive Pp was characterized by important muscle-activation peaks. During the recovery, muscles were likewise solicited for swimmers 1 (S1) and 2 (S2), while the lowest activities were observed during GP for S2 and swimmer 3 (S3), but not for S1, who maintained major muscle solicitations.

Conclusions:

The main muscle activities were observed during PP to perform powerful lower-limb extension. The most-skilled swimmer (S1) was the only 1 to solicit her muscles during GP to actively reach better streamlining. Important activation peaks during RP correspond to the limbs acting against water drag. Such differences in EMG strategies among an elite group highlight the importance of considering the muscle parameters used to effectively control the intensity of activation among the phases for a more efficient breaststroke kick.

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Nima Dehghansai and Joseph Baker

better understand this cohort as well as to identify targeting and recruitment strategies for future events. The results from this study suggest that the Paralympian Search is meeting its objective of capturing athletes from a wide range of groups, with a wide range of experiences. The current findings

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Byron Lai, Eunbi Lee, Mayumi Wagatsuma, Georgia Frey, Heidi Stanish, Taeyou Jung and James H. Rimmer

. Rich and diverse adaptive programs 3. Strategies to increase intervention reach 1. Generalizability 2. Transferability 3. Scientific rigor 1. Long-term and sustainable postintervention outcomes 2. Precision-based interventions 3. Scalable interventions and recruitment strategies Promising Elements of

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Lisa K. Sharp, Marian L. Fitzgibbon and Linda Schiffer

Background:

Despite the increased health risks for obese Black women, relatively little research has explored physical activity and nutrition interventions for these women. This article describes the recruitment strategies used in a program designed specifically for obese Black women.

Methods:

Recruitment of Black women age 30 to 65 years with body mass indices between 30 kg/m2 and 50 kg/m2 was completed using in-person recruitment and flyers within 2 miles of the intervention site along with mass e-mails within the sponsoring university system. Medical clearance from a physician was an eligibility requirement because of Institutional Review Board safety concerns.

Results:

Of the 690 women who were screened, 213 (31%) were eligible and randomized. The most common reason for exclusion was failure to return a medical clearance form (n = 167, 39% of ineligible). Different rates of efficiency were noted across recruitment approaches.

Conclusions:

Black women were successfully recruited using in-person community recruitment, e-mail, and community flyers within close proximity to the intervention site. Careful consideration should be given to the advantages and disadvantages of various recruitment strategies that might not generalize across studies.

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Deborah Rohm Young, Abby C. King and Roberta K. Oka

This investigation identified demographic and health-related characteristics of 1,877 sedentary, underactive, and regularly active individuals aged 50 to 65 randomly sampled from a northern California city. Physiological and psychosocial information was available in greater detail for a subsample (n = 327) of sedentary and underactive persons who were subsequently enrolled in a randomized, controlled, clinical trial (SSHIP). Results suggested that unmarried men, women reporting poor health, and smokers were most likely to be completely sedentary. Sedentary and underactive individuals responded differently to two recruitment strategies designed to attract participants into SSHIP. In addition, the initially sedentary participants had significantly lower adherence rates across the 1-year exercise trial compared to the initially underactive regardless of either the format or intensity of the program. These data underscore the utility of differentiating between levels of less-than-optimal physical activity in formulating campaigns promoting physical activity as well as designing exercise interventions.

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Jennifer L. Etnier, Jeffrey D. Labban, William B. Karper, Laurie Wideman, Aaron T. Piepmeier, Chia-Hao Shih, Michael Castellano, Lauren M. Williams, Se-Yun Park, Vincent C. Henrich, William N. Dudley and Kelli L. Rulison

Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by APOE e4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting APOE e4 carriers are discussed.

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Lisa A. Cadmus Bertram, Gina Chung, Herbert Yu, Peter Salovey and Melinda Irwin

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a tumor registry to recruit newly diagnosed survivors into a randomized controlled exercise trial and to discuss issues related to this recruitment strategy.

Methods:

A tumor registry-based rapid ascertainment system was used to recruit breast cancer survivors into a 6-month home-based, telephone-administered intervention of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise or a usual care group.

Results:

468 newly diagnosed cases were identified. Of these, 50 women (15.4% of those for which screening calls were made) were enrolled in the study. Women were randomized, on average, 11 weeks after diagnosis (SD = 4.8). Sixty-four percent were randomized before beginning treatment or within the first week of treatment. Time required to obtain physician consent was the primary determinant of diagnosis-to-randomization latency. Enrolled women were more likely than nonenrolled women to be non-Hispanic White and to have a college degree (P < .05).

Conclusion:

Tumor registries present a feasible means of recruiting breast cancer survivors before or early in adjuvant treatment. The success of recruiting survivors promptly after diagnosis is largely dependent on ability to rapidly obtain physician consent. Specific effort is needed to counteract self-selection effects that may lead to under-representation of minorities.

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Kristin M. Mills, Anita L. Stewart, Barbara Y. McLellan, Carol J. Verboncoeur, Abby C. King and Byron W. Brown

Health-promotion programs’ success depends on their ability to enroll representative samples of the target population, particularly those who are hard to reach and those who can benefit the most from such programs. This article evaluates enrollment bias in the recruitment process, examines the usefulness of a 2-phased recruitment strategy in enrolling representative proportions of eligible individuals in a physical-activity-promotion program for older adults, and explores predictors of enrollment. Of 1,381 randomly selected Medicare HMO members. 519 were eligible. Of these, 54% attended an informational meeting and 33% enrolled in the program. Relative to the target population, a representative proportion of women was enrolled, but those who enrolled were slightly younger. Of those who were eligible, a representative proportion of sedentary participants was recruited, those who were overweight were overrep-resented, and the oldest old, less educated, ethnic minorities, and precontem-plators of physical activity were underrepresented. Modifiable predictors of enrollment included interest in health, previous health-class attendance, and having had a physician recommend exercise.