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Justin H. Rigby and Austin M. Hagan

dependent on the photobiomodulation therapy’s wavelength, which determines the therapy’s specific color of light. 2 Different wavelengths in the visible, from blue to red, and infrared spectrums have been used in treating musculoskeletal conditions in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Blue light has

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Pamela J. Redding

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Column-editor : Kathleen M. Laquale

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Teri Riding McCabe, Jatin P. Ambegaonkar, Matthew Wyon and Emma Redding

Context:

The female dancer’s technique in DanceSport involves keeping the upper body and head poised in extension and left rotation. Attempting to maintain this position while dancing can lead to an extension neck injury (ENI).

Objective:

The aim of this online survey was to discover the prevalence of ENI among female ballroom dancers.

Design and Participants:

Female DanceSport competitors (N = 127) completed an online survey.

Results:

Twenty-fve percent reported having ENI, and 68% of ENI occurred at competitions. Younger dancers (mean age = 20 ± 4.8 years) were significantly (p < .003) more likely to have ENI than older dancers (mean age = 34 ± 12.9 years).

Conclusions:

ENI is prevalent in DanceSport competitors. Dance medicine professionals should consider this when designing injury prevention programs.

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James R. Day, Matthew R. Hanson and Melody J. Reding

Edited by Michael G. Dolan

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Christina Yannetsos, Mario C. Pacheco and Danny G. Thomas

Key Points ▸ There is a widespread underreporting of concussion in athletes. ▸ Red-flag symptoms were often mistaken for common concussive symptoms by judo coaches. ▸ Coaches’ concussion education, judo equipment, and legislature are potential areas of improvement. Sport-related concussion has an

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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton and Cormac Ryan

persistent pain. Methods Design In this parallel group, single-blind randomized control trial, participants were randomly assigned to receive either PNE or control education (red flags education). Three outcome measures were analyzed before and after both of the education sessions. Outcome measures were the

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Alan D. Rogol

Most hormonal agents used for nonmedical purposes in athletes have legitimate medical uses. This review introduces each compound by its pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and legitimate medical use and reviews information on its abuse. Human growth hormone is presently available in virtually unlimited quantities due to its production by recombinant DNA technology. Its use in athletes is considered for its muscle-building, fat-depleting properties. Erythropoietin is a kidney hormone that increases red cell mass. It is used for renal dialysis patients to avoid blood transfusions. Its use in athletes is to raise red blood cell mass in an attempt to augment maximal oxygen capacity and the ability to do endurance work. Human chorionic gonadotropin has the biological activity of luteinizing hormone to increase testosterone synthesis and to maintain (partially) testicular volume when exogenous androgens are taken. Clenbuterol is a beta2 adrenergic agonist with muscle-building properties that are seemingly specific to striated muscle; clenbuterol may cause reduction in body fat.

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John de Grosbois and Luc Tremblay

]; see Redding & Wallace, 1997 ). Second, the comparison of performance in NV conditions with a FV condition was expected to yield evidence for differences in the contribution of online control for all four measures. This was predicted because all of these measures have been associated with online

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Lars Donath and Peter Wolf

Multiaxial force sensors were applied to measure interaction forces during dynamic movements, such as climbing. When interaction forces are interpreted, minimal detectable changes, typical errors, and coefficients of variation of related performance metrics should be quantified. Thus, the presented study evaluated absolute and relative between-trial reliability with and without previous familiarization trials. Eleven Swiss elite climbers (5 females, 6 males) were tested during 2 repetitive climbing sequences (including 4 instrumented holds: 2 crimps, 1 undercling, 1 sloper). To ensure comparable relative intensity, females climbed at 20°, 25°, 30°, 25°, and 20° wall inclination, while males climbed at 25°, 30°, 35°, 30°, and 25°. Contact time, maximal resultant force, mean resultant force, impulse, and the number of load changes were analyzed at the lowest inclination. Acceptable to good between-trial reliability was found for nearly all holds and performance metrics. Performance analyses after 5 minutes of familiarization on the unknown boulder, which equals up to 3 trials, yielded to higher variability compared with performance analyses after several familiarization trials. Accordingly, the majority of absolute and relative reliability data improved after familiarization trails. Thus, to be detectable, interventional changes have to exceed higher biological variability during on-sight conditions than during red-point conditions.