This article examines the piloting of a cultural safety training module in the Canadian Red Cross’s (CRC’s) Water Safety Instructor Development Program. Thematic analysis of interviews with program participants and facilitators revealed two main themes: Inclusion is important and valued by instructors, and accommodation for cultural and ethnic diversity is difficult to achieve in aquatics settings. Doherty and Chelladurai’s (1999) framework was used to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the pilot module. In conclusion, the authors propose that cultural safety training for the instructors alone will not lead to the provision of culturally safe sport; rather, there needs to be a change in the overall organizational culture in which the CRC’s programs are offered if they are to succeed. These findings make three contributions to the literature. First, the authors bridge the existing bodies of literature on critical Whiteness theory and sport management literature that addresses the management of diversity. Second, the authors explore the novel application of cultural safety training for instructors of a sport program. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to enable the development of an organizational culture that is facilitative and supportive with respect to inclusion (i.e., is welcoming) and accommodation (i.e., is flexible and adaptable) of cultural and ethnic diversity in aquatics programming.
Kyle A. Rich and Audrey R. Giles
Lee Phillip McGinnis and James W. Gentry
The golf industry is currently undergoing a “churning effect” whereby players are leaving nearly as quickly as they enter; this effect is especially prevalent among women. We examine interviews from male and female golf professionals, as well as transcripts from interviews with female participants of various playing levels and experience, in order to determine the reasons women not only leave golf, but more importantly, why they stay. Our data indicate that once golfers have become hooked on the game, interpersonal and structural constraints have more influence on participation than intrapersonal constraints, whereas women new to golf face intrapersonal constraints (mainly related to ability) and structural constraints (but ones somewhat different from frequent participants). We suggest strategies that might reduce the intrapersonal (helping new players of both sexes achieve a minimal level of mastery), interpersonal (development of a more gender neutral environment to reduce the likelihood of “differentness” being noted), and structural (provision of child care facilities at the course, reducing the 18-hole mentality) constraints.
Melissa Davies, Michael L. Naraine and Brandon Mastromartino
represent the Vegas skyline, with the red coming from the Red Rock Canyon nearby, the black reflecting power and intensity, the gold for the Golden Knights and Nevada’s gold production, and the steel gray reflecting strength and durability. Mascot While the natural mascot would have been a knight
Jacob K. Tingle, Callum Squires and Randall Griffiths
.S.,” muttered Sally. Later, after the entire class met for their first welcome session and dinner at Nando’s, Jake and his three new friends went for a walk to explore the neighborhood. They came across a large and noisy venue with people drinking beer outside of it. The red sign out front read, The Flying
on hosting obstacle racing events. Nonetheless, Clayton, an environmental scientist, and Richard, a computer programmer, knew the potential for obstacle racing events and wholeheartedly planned the event. Pricing of the Red Dirt Mud Run In 2013, Clayton and Richard led the first Red Dirt Mud Run
Daniel Wigfield and Ryan Snelgrove
, players from other leagues—specifically, other Ontario-based leagues—had an edge in terms of NHL career advancement compared to their GTHL counterparts. Despite this debunking, it cannot be denied that a significant portion of the NHL’s all-time best players (e.g., Red Kelly, Ken Dryden, Paul Coffey, Eric
This article presents a study that examined what citizen journalism on Twitter has meant for the professional identity and working practices of British sport journalists, using data from a series of in-depth, semistructured interviews. Sport journalists recognized the need to strive for higher professional standards to ensure that their output is of greater cultural significance than that of citizen journalists. Trust—achieved through the ideologies of truth, reliability, and insight—was seen as essential to achieving this distinction. The democratization of breaking news has meant that red-top tabloid and 24-hr rolling news environments must reinvent themselves by making greater use of other journalistic practices including investigative reporting.
This research explored people’s expression of parasocial interaction (PSI) on Boston Red Sox pitcher Curt Schilling’s blog, 38pitches.com. A thematic analysis using grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and constant comparative methodology of 1,337 postings on Schilling’s blog was conducted. Three parasocial aspects emerged from data analysis: identification, admonishment and advice giving, and criticism. The findings of the study provide support for previous research that suggests identification is a PSI component, and given the large presence of admonishment and criticism, the findings extend PSI theory by suggesting that PSI theory must account for and encompass negative relational behaviors. The results also indicate that people’s use of information and communication technologies is reconfiguring parasocial relationships as fans take an active role in soliciting and communicating with professional athletes, subsequently creating more opportunities for PSI to occur.
Chang Wan Woo, Jung Kyu Kim, Cynthia Nichols and Lu Zheng
Numerous studies examining the portrayals of gender, race, and nationality in sports commentary have been conducted through the years; however, comparative analyses of commentaries from different countries have been rare. This study examined commentary from 3 different countries (the U.S., Chinese Taipei, and South Korea) during a Major League Baseball (MLB) World Series. An entertainment theory schema was adopted and the 3 countries were categorized based on dispositional relativity (affiliation) with MLB. Findings indicate that South Korean broadcasts, which had the lowest affiliation with MLB, were biased toward the Boston Red Sox and presented the most evaluative commentaries; U.S. commentaries were generally positive and contained the largest portion of informative comments; and Chinese commentaries were unbiased and also provided a large number of informative comments. This implies that sports games using the same visual images can be framed differently by commentators based on the disposition (affiliation) level of audiences.
Bastian Popp, Chris Horbel and Claas Christian Germelmann
-sponsor-brand communities studied in this research (see Table 1 ) are relatively small compared with the number of followers of the official Facebook brand pages of the sponsors and clubs (RB Leipzig, 365,310 likes, 363,099 followers; Red Bull, 49,001,369 likes, 47,835,239 followers; SV Werder Bremen, 1,000,032 likes, 988