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Roger Feltman and Andrew J. Elliot

Recent research has revealed that a person or team wearing red is more likely to win a physical contest than a person or team wearing another color. In the present research, we examined whether red influences perceptions of relative dominance and threat in an imagined same-sex competitive context, and did so attending to the distinction between wearing red oneself and viewing red on an opponent. Results revealed a bidirectional effect: wearing red enhanced perceptions of one’s relative dominance and threat, and viewing an opponent in red enhanced perceptions of the opponent’s relative dominance and threat. These effects were observed across sex, and participants seemed unaware of the influence of red on their responses. Our findings lead to practical suggestions regarding the use of colored attire in sport contexts, and add to an emerging, provocative literature indicating that red has a subtle but important influence on psychological functioning.

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Dennis Dreiskaemper, Bernd Strauss, Norbert Hagemann and Dirk Büsch

Hill and Barton (2005) showed that fighters in tae kwon do, boxing, and wrestling who wore red jerseys during the 2004 Olympic Games won more often than those wearing blue jerseys. Regarding these results, this study investigated the effects of jersey color during a combat situation on fighters’ physical parameters of strength and heart rate. An artificial, experimental combat situation was created in which the color of sport attire was assigned randomly. Fourteen pairs of male athletes matched for weight, height, and age had to fight each other: once in a red jersey and once in a blue. Heart rate (before, during, and after the fight) and strength (before the fight) were tested wearing the blue and the red jerseys. Participants wearing red jerseys had significantly higher heart rates and significantly higher pre-contest values on the strength test. Results showed that participants’ body functions are influenced by wearing red equipment.

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Bjoern Krenn

In the current study we questioned the impact of uniform color in boxing, taekwondo and wrestling. On 18 photos showing two athletes competing, the hue of each uniform was modified to blue, green or red. For each photo, six color conditions were generated (blue-red, blue-green, green-red and vice versa). In three experiments these 108 photos were randomly presented. Participants (N = 210) had to select the athlete that seemed to be more aggressive, fairer or more likely to win the fight. Results revealed that athletes wearing red in boxing and wrestling were judged more aggressive and more likely to win than athletes wearing blue or green uniforms. In addition, athletes wearing green were judged fairer in boxing and wrestling than athletes wearing red. In taekwondo we did not find any significant impact of uniform color. Results suggest that uniform color in combat sports carries specific meanings that affect others’ judgments.

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Arupendra Mozumdar and Gary Liguori

Objective:

To examine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) with occupational physical activity (OCPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among working women.

Methods:

The prevalence of MetSyn was calculated for 642 working women. Self-report questionnaire was used to determine levels of OCPA and LTPA and other lifestyle factors. Biometric data were directly collected on all women.

Results:

No direct relationship for OCPA and the MetSyn was determined. Sufficient LTPA however, was significantly associated with lower prevalence of MetSyn. No dose response relationship was determined with PA and MetSyn. The odds of having MetSyn was significantly higher for sedentary workers with insufficient LTPA compared with those achieving sufficient LTPA. The odds for MetSyn were similar among women employed in moderately active or heavy work yet completing insufficient LTPA compared with women doing sufficient LTPA.

Conclusions:

For women with sedentary occupations, a sufficient amount of LTPA is essential to reduce the risk of having the MetSyn. Women in moderate to heavy working occupations may be acquiring adequate amounts of PA to avoid having the MetSyn.

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Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Andrew P. Hill, Jennifer Cumming, Imogen J. Aujla and Emma Redding

The present study examined the relationship between dance-related perfectionism and perceptions of motivational climate in dance over time. In doing so, three possibilities were tested: (a) perfectionism affects perceptions of the motivational climate, (b) perceptions of the motivational climate affect perfectionism, and (c) the relationship is reciprocal. Two hundred seventy-one young dancers (M = 14.21 years old, SD = 1.96) from UK Centres for Advanced Training completed questionnaires twice, approximately 6 months apart. Cross-lagged analysis indicated that perfectionistic concerns led to increased perceptions of an ego-involving climate and decreased perceptions of a task-involving climate over time. In addition, perceptions of a task-involving climate led to increased perfectionistic strivings over time. The findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns may color perceptions of training/performing environments so that mistakes are deemed unacceptable and only superior performance is valued. They also suggest that perceptions of a task-involving climate in training/performing environments may encourage striving for excellence and perfection without promoting excessive concerns regarding their attainment.

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Jessica M. Lipschitz, Miryam Yusufov, Andrea Paiva, Colleen A. Redding, Joseph S. Rossi, Sara Johnson, Bryan Blissmer, N. Simay Gokbayrak, Wayne F. Velicer and James O. Prochaska

This study examined longitudinal differences in use of transtheoretical model (TTM) behavior change constructs in maintainers (who reached and maintained exercise guidelines), relapsers (who reached guidelines, then regressed), and nonchangers (who did not reach guidelines). Data from two population-based TTM-tailored randomized trial intervention groups targeting exercise behavior (N = 1050) were pooled, and analyses assessed differences in TTM constructs between the three groups at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. Findings indicated that relapsers tended to use TTM variables similarly to maintainers with the exception of self-efficacy, consciousness raising, and most behavioral processes of change, at 24 months. Nonchangers, however, used all TTM variables less than maintainers at nearly every time point. Findings suggest that relapsers remain more active than nonchangers in terms of use of change processes. Poor response to interventions (nonchangers) may be predicted by low baseline engagement in change processes. Although relapsers reverted to physical inactivity, their overall greater use of TTM constructs suggests that their efforts to change remain better than those of the stable nonchanger group. Future research can focus on treatment engagement strategies to help the stable nonchangers initiate change and to help relapsers to maintain treatment gains.

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Norbert Hagemann, Bernd Strauss and Rouwen Cañal-Bruland

A major element in expert sports performance, particularly racket-and-ball games, is excellent anticipatory skill. A prestudy combined the temporal and spatial occlusion paradigms to ascertain which key stimuli badminton players use for anticipating the direction of overhead shots. The main study then evaluated a program for training anticipatory skills; 200 video clips were employed to orient attention toward these key stimuli. Participants were 63 badminton novices, 20 national league players, and 21 local league players. A transparent red patch (exogenous orienting) was used to orient attention toward the trunk up to 160 ms before racket-shuttle contact; the arm, from 160 ms to 80 ms before contact; and the racket, from 80 ms before to actual contact. Results showed that badminton novices who trained with this program significantly improved their anticipatory skill between post- and retention test compared with controls. Whereas local league players improved from pre- to posttest, training had no effect on expert national league players. It is concluded that using red transparent patches to highlight the most informative cues in perceptual training programs is a promising way to improve anticipatory skill.

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Philip Furley, Matt Dicks and Daniel Memmert

In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.

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JoAnn Reis and Anne Marie Bird

This two part investigation tested whether or not a self-report measure of broad or narrow attentional style (i.e., the BET and RED subscales of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style-TAIS) could predict cue-processing ability on a task that required processing of peripheral cues. In Experiment 1, it was hypothesized that broad attenders would be superior to narrow attenders. Two separate probe techniques were used to measure peripheral cue processing. Results indicated marginal support for the prediction on the first probe and strong support on the second probe. In Experiment 2, subjects received either positive or negative false feedback in an attempt to manipulate level of anxiety and to observe the subsequent effects on the cue-processing ability of broad and narrow attenders. Broad attenders who received positive feedback processed peripheral cues faster than all other subjects. Findings were discussed within the framework of Kahneman's capacity theory of attention and the desirability of employing a precise operational definition of attention within individual difference research.

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Shu-Hui Yeh, Hsiu-Ling Lai, Chiu-Yueh Hsiao, Li-Wei Lin, Yu-Kuan Chuang, Yu-Ying Yang and Kuender D. Yang

Background:

Moderate physical activity has been shown to promote immunity. Different moderate physical activities may have different effects on immunity. This study investigated the impacts of a 12-week regular music aerobic exercise (MAE) program on leukocyte distribution, lymphocyte subsets, and lymphocyte polarization.

Methods:

The study used a case-control design with pretest and posttest. Forty-seven middle-age women were recruited for this study. Three participants dropped out, 22 completed the 12-week MAE program, and the other 22 participants who had heat-intolerance or limited schedule eligibility were enrolled as the control group without the MAE exercise.

Results:

Results showed that the MAE exercise for 12 weeks didn’t change red blood cells or total leukocytes but increased lymphocyte counts. The women in MAE group revealed significant increases (P ≤ 0.01) of CD3CD4, CD3CD8, and CD4CD25 cells, associated with Treg polarization showing enhanced FoxP3 but not T-bet, Gata-3, or RORγT expression (P < .01). The control group without exercise revealed insignificant change of lymphocyte subsets or lymphocyte polarization.

Conclusions:

This study shows that MAE increases specific lymphocyte subsets and enhances Treg cell differentiation. It is suggested to encourage moderate physical activity of music aerobic exercise to enhance lymphocyte function of middle-aged women.