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Courtney W. Hess, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

, has prompted a growing demand for evidence (i.e., empirical research, professional practice knowledge) to inform practice in sport-injury rehabilitation. Despite consistent efforts toward improved evidence-based practice, sport-injury rehabilitation outcomes remain suboptimal at best. For example, in

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Keith Baar

. The player was placed on a program that combined gelatin ingestion and stress relaxation loading as part of a rehabilitation protocol. Of note, even with an extensive playing and training schedule, the protocol significantly decreased MRI reactivity, increased the thickness of the midsubstance of the

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Øyvind F. Standal, Tor Erik H. Nyquist and Hanne H. Mong

, but is not limited to, physical education, sport, recreation, and rehabilitation” ( http://www.eufapa.eu/index.php/apa.html ). In Europe, several researchers from different countries cooperated in developing professional standards for APA in the three contexts: sports, schools, and rehabilitation

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Lance B. Green

The purpose of this treatise is to provide an educational text that (a) cites existing literature supporting a mind-body paradigm for rehabilitation from psychophysiological and psychomotor perspectives, (b) demonstrates the application of imagery techniques within the chronology of an athletic injury, and (c) describes the performance-related criteria to which an athlete can compare his or her progress during rehabilitation. The chronology includes the period of time preceding the injury, the attention given to the athlete immediately following the injury, and the subsequent rehabilitation program leading to the athlete’s return to practice and competition. Examples of imagery experientials are used to illustrate its application throughout the chronology.

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Diane M. Wiese and Maureen R. Weiss

Psychological rehabilitation in response to physical injury is of primary concern to athletes, trainers, coaches, and sport psychologists. To date, there is little empirical research to shed light on this topic, as well as on the role of sport psychology practitioners in facilitating the prevention, rehabilitation, and recovery from athletic injuries. The purpose of this paper is to consolidate and report the information available on the nature of injuries and make suggestions concerning the application of sport psychology principles when working with injured athletes. Four major concerns are addressed with regard to current knowledge and practical implications: how injuries happen, how athletes respond to injuries, how psychological rehabilitation as well as physical recovery from injuries can be facilitated, and determining when injured athletes are psychologically ready to return to competition.

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Matthew P. Bejar, Leslee A. Fisher, Benjamin H. Nam, Leslie K. Larsen, Jamie M. Fynes and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

Although the biopsychosocial model of sport injury rehabilitation (Brewer, Andersen, & Van Raalte, 2002) is one of the most comprehensive frameworks to address athletes’ postinjury responses, there has been little research centralizing the myriad of cultural factors (e.g., nationality, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) that can impact psychological, social/contextual, and biological factors that, in turn, impact athletes’ recovery. The purpose of the current study was to explore high-level South Korean athletes’ experiences of injury and rehabilitation. Retrospective semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 retired high-level South Korean athletes. Employing Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) methodology (Hill, 2012), four domains were constructed from the data: (a) Experience of the South Korean Sport System, (b) Immediate Post-Injury Perceptions, (c) Experience of Recovery Process, and (d) Post-Injury Reflections. The findings indicated that participants’ experiences of the forced hierarchy and power dynamics within the South Korean athletic specialist system influenced perceived sport injury rehabilitation outcomes.

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Jim Taylor and Shel Taylor

This article addresses the essential role that pain plays in the rehabilitation of sports injury. It will describe important information and approaches that applied sport psychologists can use to more effectively manage pain in injured athletes. The article includes a brief discussion of the most accepted theories of pain. Types of pain that injured athletes may experience and how they can learn to discriminate between them will be discussed. The article will also consider how pain can be a useful tool as information about injured athletes’ current status in recovery and the need to modify their rehabilitation regimens. The value of measuring pain will be examined with emphasis on determining a simple and easy means of assessing pain. Next, the article will examine why nonpharmacological pain management may be a useful adjunct to pharmacological pain control. Then, a brief description of the most commonly used pain medications and a detailed description of common nonpharmacological pain-management strategies will be furnished. A discussion of how nonpharmacological pain management can be incorporated into the traditional rehabilitation process will be offered. Finally, the article will describe the role that sport psychologists can play in the management of sport injury-related pain. The objective of this article is to provide applied practitioners with the knowledge and tools necessary to assist injured athletes in mitigating the pain they will experience during recovery as a means of facilitating their rehabilitation and return to sport.

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Matt Konopinski, David Rydings, Jordan Milsom, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

; Waldén et al., 2016 ), with factors affecting the length of recovery, including concomitant damage (e.g., chondral defect or posterolateral corner damage) and achieving the necessary exit criteria as part of the rehabilitation program (e.g., strength, power, range of motion, biomechanics, and load

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Leslie Podlog, Sophie M. Banham, Ross Wadey and James C. Hannon

The purpose of this study was to examine athlete experiences and understandings of psychological readiness to return to sport following a serious injury. A focus group and follow-up semistructured interviews were conducted with seven English athletes representing a variety of sports. Three key attributes of readiness were identified including: (a) confidence in returning to sport; (b) realistic expectations of one’s sporting capabilities; and (c) motivation to regain previous performance standards. Numerous precursors such as trust in rehabilitation providers, accepting postinjury limitations, and feeling wanted by significant others were articulated. Results indicate that psychological readiness is a dynamic, psychosocial process comprised of three dimensions that increase athletes’ perceived likelihood of a successful return to sport following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research and practical implications are offered.

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Megan Self, Simon Driver, Laurel Stevens and Ann Marie Warren

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health issue due to the incidence, complexity, and cost associated with treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity (PA) knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and barriers among individuals with a TBI undergoing outpatient rehabilitation. Seventeen participants completed a series of group interviews regarding their PA needs. A qualitative research design was adopted and trustworthiness was established through investigator triangulation of data. A cross-case analysis was completed to identify themes and conceptual patterns. The main themes identified were (a) an inability to differentiate between PA and physical therapy, (b) a limited knowledge of PA health benefits and the relationship to rehabilitation, and (c) an interest in participating in a PA based health promotion program. Future interventions should educate individuals about PA, the associated health benefits, and the role PA plays in the rehabilitation process.