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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy and Christine M. Baugh

immediately, or ever, report their symptoms to a coach, or medical professional (e.g., athletic trainers, medical providers or staff). Recent estimates suggest that between 30.5% and 78.3% of athletes continue to play while experiencing symptoms of a possible concussion (7–16) ( Baugh, Kroshus, Daneshvar

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Maria Hagströmer, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Lydia Kwak and Heather R. Bowles

Context:

The quality of methodological papers assessing physical activity instruments depends upon the rigor of a study’s design.

Objectives:

We present a checklist to assess key criteria for instrument validation studies.

Process:

A Medline/PubMed search was performed to identify guidelines for evaluating the methodological quality of instrument validation studies. Based upon the literature, a pilot version of a checklist was developed consisting of 21 items with 3 subscales: 1) quality of the reported data (9 items: assess whether the reported information is sufficient to make an unbiased assessment of the findings); 2) external validity of the results (3 items: assess the extent to which the findings are generalizable); 3) internal validity of the study (9 items: assess the rigor of the study design). The checklist was tested for interrater reliability and feasibility with 6 raters.

Findings:

Raters viewed the checklist as helpful for reviewing studies. They suggested minor wording changes for 8 items to clarify intent. One item was divided into 2 items for a total of 22 items.

Discussion:

Checklists may be useful to assess the quality of studies designed to validate physical activity instruments. Future research should test checklist internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity.

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Tim Takken, Nynke de Jong and on behalf of the Dutch Physical Activity Report Card Study Group

Introduction National surveillance data in the Netherlands show that the percentage of children and youth, who meet the Dutch physical activity guidelines has decreased significantly between 2006 and 2014. 1 Data from the 2016 Dutch Physical Activity Report Card showed that only a minority of

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Marcella Burghard, Karlijn Knitel, Iris van Oost, Mark S. Tremblay, Tim Takken and the Dutch Physical Activity Report Card Study Group

Background:

The Active Healthy Kids the Netherlands (AHKN) Report Card consolidates and translates research and assesses how the Netherlands is being responsible in providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for children and youth (<18 years). The primary aim of this article is to summarize the results of the 2016 AHKN Report Card.

Methods:

Nine indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance report card development process, which includes a synthesis of the best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings, and expert consensus.

Results:

Grades assigned were: Overall Physical Activity Levels, D; Organized Sport Participation, B; Active Play, B; Active Transportation, A; Sedentary Behaviors, C; Family and Peers, B; School, C; Community and the Built Environment, A; Government Strategies and Investments, INC.

Conclusions:

Sedentary behavior and overall PA levels are not meeting current guidelines. However, the Dutch youth behaviors in sports, active transportation, and active play are satisfactory. Several modifiable factors of influence might be enhanced to improve these indicators or at least prevent regression. Although Dutch children accumulate a lot of daily PA through cycling, it is not enough to meet the current national PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per day.

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Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal and David J. Hancock

of evidence is sparse compared to athletes. Soccer and ice hockey coaches, for example, reported observing other coaches to improve their coaching abilities ( Jones, Armour, & Potrac, 2003 ; Wright, Trudel, & Culver, 2007 ). Sport officials also use observational learning to acquire important

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Robert J. Brychta, Vaka Rögnvaldsdóttir, Sigríður L. Guðmundsdóttir, Rúna Stefánsdóttir, Soffia M. Hrafnkelsdóttir, Sunna Gestsdóttir, Sigurbjörn A. Arngrímsson, Kong Y. Chen and Erlingur Jóhannsson

Adolescent sleep patterns are often measured with self-report ( Lewandowski, Toliver-Sokol, & Palermo, 2011 ) or actigraphy ( Galland et al., 2018 ). Although self-report is easier to administer, lower in cost, and requires less technical expertise than actigraphy, it is often affected by social

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Jeffrey J. Milroy, Stephen Hebard, Emily Kroshus and David L. Wyrick

factors, including gender, sport, level of competition, as well as between-study differences in the definition used for under-reporting ( Baugh, Kroshus, Daneshvar, & Stern, 2014 ; Kerr et al., 2014 ; Kroshus, Daneshvar, Garnett, Nowinski, & Cantu, 2013 ; Llewellyn, Burdette, Joyner, & Buckley, 2014

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Laurel W. Sheffield and Lauren A. Stutts

the main emotional response participants reported post-injury and that negative cognitive appraisals (e.g., I’m going to get hurt again) were a precursor to reinjury anxiety ( Clement, Arvinen-Barrow, & Fetty, 2015 ). As with the physical effects of injury, the psychological effects can also be long

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Gregory J. Welk

physical activity behavior. One particularly challenging issue in physical activity research is reconciling the large discrepancies in estimates of physical activity obtained from different instruments, specifically between accelerometry-based activity monitors and report-based measures. The issue was

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Marquis Hawkins, Deirdre K. Tobias, Hala B. Alessa, Andrea K. Chomistek, Junaidah B. Barnett, Walter C. Willett and Susan E. Hankinson

2082 postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, women in the fourth versus first quartile of self-reported total PA had 10% higher SHBG, 6% lower estradiol, and 19% lower testosterone levels. 4