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Hiromune Obayashi, Yukio Urabe, Yuki Yamanaka and Ryo Okuma

Design:

Randomized controlled study.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

26 healthy swimmers randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 13; Ex) or control group (n = 13; Cont).

Intervention:

The Ex group performed respiratory-muscle exercises for 10 min thrice a week for 4 wk.

Context:

Respiratory-muscle exercises are used not only in the rehabilitation of patients with respiratory disease but also in endurance training for athletes. Respiration involves the back and abdominal muscles. These muscles are 1 of the elements responsible for posture control, which is integral to injury prevention and physical performance. However, the effects of respiratory-muscle exercise on posture remain unclear.

Objective:

To examine the potential of respiratory-muscle exercise for improving posture.

Main Outcome Measures:

Spinal curvature, pulmonary function, and trunk-muscle strength were measured for both the groups at baseline and after 4 wk. The data were compared between the Ex and Cont groups with Mann–Whitney U test and preintervention and postintervention within groups with a Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test.

Results and Conclusion:

The spinal curvature was significantly different in the Ex group, indicating a decrease in the thoracic (−13.1%, P < .01) and lumbar (−17.7%, P < .05) angles. The Ex group presented with lower thoracic (−8.6%) and lumbar (−20.9%) angles at postexercise than the Cont group (P < .05). With respect to trunk-muscle strength, only trunk-flexion strength significantly increased from pretest to posttest in the Ex group (P < .05). For pulmonary function, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s were significantly increased after 4 wk in the Ex group (P < .05). The results suggest that respiratory-muscle exercise straightened the spine, leading to good posture control, possibly because of contraction of abdominal muscles.

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

Context: People with chronic low back pain (CLBP) suffer from weaknesses in their core muscle activity and dysfunctional breathing. Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) was recently developed to treat this condition. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of IMT on core muscle activity, pulmonary parameters, and pain intensity in athletes with CLBP. Design: This study was designed as a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting: Clinical rehabilitation laboratory. Participants: A total of 23 male and 24 female athletes with CLBP were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. Main Outcome Measures: The experimental group performed IMT for 8 weeks, 7 days per week and twice daily, using POWERbreathe KH1, beginning at 50% of maximum inspiratory pressure with a progressively increasing training load. The surface electromyography muscle activity of the erector spinae, multifidus, transverse abdominis and rectus abdominis, respiratory function and Visual Analogue Scale score were also measured before and after the intervention in both groups. The repeated-measures analysis of variance and 1-way analysis of covariance were further used to compare the intragroup and intergroup results following the intervention. Results: The findings of the study revealed that multifidus and transverse abdominis activity, as well as respiratory function, increased significantly in the IMT group (P < .05). Moreover, a descending trend was observed in the Visual Analogue Scale score in the experimental group (P < .05). Conclusion: The results showed that IMT can improve respiratory function, increase core muscle activity, and, consequently, reduce pain intensity in athletes with CLBP.

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* Christine A. Lauber * 2 2012 21 1 54 62 10.1123/jsr.21.1.54 Effects of Respiratory-Muscle Exercise on Spinal Curvature Hiromune Obayashi * Yukio Urabe * Yuki Yamanaka * Ryo Okuma * 2 2012 21 1 63 68 10.1123/jsr.21.1.63 Case Studies Posterior Glenohumeral Thermal Capsulorraphy, Capsular Imbrication

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Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

.1097/00007632-200201010-00015 15 Bradley H , Esformes J . Breathing pattern disorders and functional movement . Int J Sports Phys Ther . 2014 ; 9 ( 1 ): 28 – 39 . PubMed ID: 24567853 24567853 16 Obayashi H , Urabe Y , Yamanaka Y , Okuma R . Effects of respiratory-muscle exercise on spinal curvature . J Sport