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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

responders and nonresponders. Such an approach would increase our understanding of the potential effects of caffeine on human exercise physiology and performance. It is, however, difficult to reveal whether someone is a high or low responder to caffeine. To our knowledge, only 1 study 11 proposed a method

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Liam P. Kilduff, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Louise Tasker, Jeff Attwood, Paul Hyslop, Andrew Dailly, Ian Dickson and Stan Grant

This study examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle strength in conjunction with resistance training in nonresistance-trained males utilizing strategies previously reported in the literature to help optimize muscle Cr uptake. Nineteen nonresistance-trained males underwent 4 weeks of resistance training (3 days · week−1) while assigned to Cr (20 g · d−1 Cr + 140 g · d−1 glucose) for 7 days (loading), followed by 5 g · d−1 Cr + 35 g · d−1 glucose for 21 days (maintenance; n = 9) or placebo (160 g · d−1 glucose [loading] followed by 40 g · d−1 [maintenance; n = 10]). In subjects classified as “responders” to Cr on the basis of body mass changes (n = 7), the magnitude of change in 180∞ · s−1 isokinetic (p = .029) and isometric (p = .036) force was greater compared to the placebo group. A positive correlation was found between changes in body mass and 180º · s−1 isokinetic (loading: r = 0.68, p = .04; maintenance: r = 0.70, p = .037) and isometric (loading: r = 0.82, p < .01) force. Estimated Cr uptake was also positively correlated with changes in 60º · s−1 (r = 0.90, p < .01) and 180º · s−1 (r = 0.68, p = .043) isokinetic force, and isometric force (r = 0.71, p = .033). These results indicate that Cr supplementation can increase muscle strength (allied with 4 weeks of strength training) but only in subjects whose estimated Cr uptake and body mass are significantly increased; the greater the Cr uptake and associated body mass changes, the greater the performance gains.

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion and Patrick Gaudreau

Passionate sports fans often support the same team over the course of many seasons or even their entire lives. Accordingly, fans almost always experience important team successes, such as championship victories, as extremely positive events. But fans can differ in how they respond to team

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Sophia Jowett

Four studies were conducted to assess the psychometric properties and the theoretical basis of a version of the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Relationships, which was originally developed and validated for the assessment of romantic relationships, in a different relational context (i.e., coach-athlete relationships). The first study aimed to address the content validity of the modified inventory, the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Coach-Athlete Relationship (IDR-CART) scale. The second study employed factor analytic techniques to examine its psychometric properties. Results confirmed the two-factor structure of the inventory: self-deception (CART-SD) and impression management (CART-IM). In the third study, data were collected under public and anonymous conditions. Results revealed, however, that neither condition supported the factor structure, thereby casting doubt on theoretical assumptions. The fourth study demonstrated that CART-SD is associated with indices of relationship quality, providing evidence of convergent validity. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

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James G. Hollandsworth Jr and Gary E. Jones

This study was designed to investigate runners' perceptions of arousal and awareness of physiological responding before and after a 20-kilometer (12.4- mile) race. Participants (N = 98) completed pre- and postquestionnaires that included measures of awareness of physiological responding and self-defined states of activation and arousal. In order to identify those variables related to performance, the finishers were divided into three groups: fast, moderate, and slow. A discriminant analysis revealed that miles run in training each week, resting pulse rate, and weight were the best predictors of group membership. Of the several psychological variables, only prerace tension discriminated between the groups, with the faster runners reporting themselves as more fearful and “clutched-up” before the race. In terms of pre-post physiological and psychological effects, it was found that running 20 kilometers resulted in a significant, increased awareness of physiological responding, increased feelings of being tired and relaxed, and decreased feelings of tension and energy. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research.

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Laura Richardson Walton and Kevin D. Williams

An organization’s initial response to a crisis can dictate the tone of its sustained response throughout the crisis, as well as stakeholders’ reactions to the incident. When news of the deaths of professional wrestler Chris Benoit, his wife, and their 7-yr-old son broke, World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) immediately paid tribute to the superstar. A memorial show to Benoit’s career aired as investigators searched the family’s home. The investigation revealed that Benoit murdered his wife and son before taking his own life, resulting in WWE’s retraction of its earlier tributes. Furthermore, the organization had to respond to the swarm of speculation that steroids—and WWE’s lax policy on their use—were to blame. This case study analyzes WWE’s immediate response strategies to their employee’s family’s deaths and the subsequent strategies used on learning that the employee was implicated. Qualitative analysis of corporate documents and official statements seeks to provide direction regarding how similar organizations should respond in the days immediately after tragic events when employees may be implicated.

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Alison C. Jozsi, Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden, Jane M. Taylor-Jones, William J. Evans, Todd A. Trappe, Wayne W. Campbell and Charlotte A. Peterson

Studies have been performed in humans to identify changes in gene expression that may account for the relatively weak and variable response of aged muscle to resistance exercise. The gene expression profile of skeletal muscle from elderly (62–75 years old) compared to younger (20–30 years old) men demonstrated elevated expression of genes typical of a stress or damage response. The expression of the majority of these genes was unaffected by a single bout of high-intensity resistance exercise in elderly subjects but was altered acutely by exercise in younger subjects so as to approach the pre-exercise levels observed in older subjects. The inability of muscle from elderly subjects to respond to resistance exercise was also apparent in the expression of inflammatory response genes, which increased within 24 hours of the exercise bout only in younger subjects. Other genes with potentially important roles in the adaptation of muscle to exercise, showed a similar or even more robust response in older compared to younger subjects. Taken together, these results may help to explain the variable hypertrophic response of muscle from older individuals to resistance training.

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Blair Browning and Jimmy Sanderson

Twitter has become a popular topic in sport communication research. Little research to date, however, has examined Twitter from the perspective of student-athletes. This research explored how student-athletes at an NCAA Division I university used Twitter and reacted to critical tweets from fans. Semistructured interviews with 20 student-athletes were conducted. Analysis revealed that student-athletes used Twitter in 3 primary ways: keeping in contact, communicating with followers, and accessing information. With respect to critical tweets, student-athletes reported various perceptions about them and diverse strategies for responding to them. The results suggest that Twitter is a beneficial communicative tool for student-athletes but also presents challenges, given the ease with which fans attack them via this social-media platform. Accordingly, athletic departments must be proactive in helping student-athletes use Twitter strategically, particularly in responding to detractors.

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Eimear Enright and Mary O’Sullivan

Popular physical culture serves as a site, subject and medium for young people’s learning (Sandford & Rich, 2006) and impacts their relationship with physical education, physical activity and the construction of their embodied identities. This paper addresses the potential of scrapbooking as a pedagogical and methodological tool to facilitate physical education researchers and teachers to listen to, and better understand and respond to extend students’ existing knowledge of, and critical engagement with popular physical culture. The data draws from a three year Participatory Action Research project that was undertaken in an urban, secondary school and was designed to engage 41 girls (aged 15–19) in understanding, critiquing and transforming aspects of their lives that influenced their perspectives of their bodies and their physical activity and physical education engagement. In this paper the focus is on the engagement of eleven of these girls in a five week popular physical culture unit. The students’ scrapbooks, audio-recordings of classes, a guided conversation, and field notes constitute the data sources. Findings suggest scrapbooking has the potential to allow researchers access, understand and respond to students’ perspectives on popular physical culture and their lives in a way that other methods may not. Pedagogically, scrapbooking supported students in critically appraising and making meaning of “scraps” of popular physical culture.

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Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha L. Moss and Craig Twist

Purpose: To determine the utility of running-only and rugby-specific, in-season sprint interval interventions in professional rugby league players. Methods: Thirty-one professional academy rugby players were assigned to a rugby-specific (SITr/s, n = 16) or running-only (SITr, n = 15) sprint interval training group. Measures of speed, power, change of direction ability, prone Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR1) performance, and heart rate recovery were taken before and after the 2-week intervention as were submaximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Internal, external, and perceptual responses were collected during SITr/s and SITr, with well-being and neuromuscular function assessed before each session. Results: Despite contrasting (possible to most likely) internal, external, and perceptual responses to the SIT interventions, possible to most likely within-group improvements in physical characteristics, heart rate recovery, and submaximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1 were observed after both interventions. Between-group analysis favored the SITr/s intervention (trivial to moderate) for changes in 10-m sprint time, countermovement jump, change of direction, and medicine ball throw as well as submaximal (280–440 m) high metabolic power, PlayerLoad, and acceleration distance during the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Overall changes in well-being or neuromuscular function were unclear. Conclusions: Two weeks of SITr/s and SITr were effective for improving physical characteristics, heart rate recovery, and submaximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1, with no clear change in well-being and neuromuscular function. Between-group analysis favored the SITr/s group, suggesting that the inclusion of sport-specific actions should be considered for in-season conditioning of rugby league players.