responders and nonresponders. Such an approach would increase our understanding of the potential effects of caffeine on human exercise physiology and performance. It is, however, difficult to reveal whether someone is a high or low responder to caffeine. To our knowledge, only 1 study 11 proposed a method
Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous
Liam P. Kilduff, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, Louise Tasker, Jeff Attwood, Paul Hyslop, Andrew Dailly, Ian Dickson and Stan Grant
This study examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle strength in conjunction with resistance training in nonresistance-trained males utilizing strategies previously reported in the literature to help optimize muscle Cr uptake. Nineteen nonresistance-trained males underwent 4 weeks of resistance training (3 days · week−1) while assigned to Cr (20 g · d−1 Cr + 140 g · d−1 glucose) for 7 days (loading), followed by 5 g · d−1 Cr + 35 g · d−1 glucose for 21 days (maintenance; n = 9) or placebo (160 g · d−1 glucose [loading] followed by 40 g · d−1 [maintenance; n = 10]). In subjects classified as “responders” to Cr on the basis of body mass changes (n = 7), the magnitude of change in 180∞ · s−1 isokinetic (p = .029) and isometric (p = .036) force was greater compared to the placebo group. A positive correlation was found between changes in body mass and 180º · s−1 isokinetic (loading: r = 0.68, p = .04; maintenance: r = 0.70, p = .037) and isometric (loading: r = 0.82, p < .01) force. Estimated Cr uptake was also positively correlated with changes in 60º · s−1 (r = 0.90, p < .01) and 180º · s−1 (r = 0.68, p = .043) isokinetic force, and isometric force (r = 0.71, p = .033). These results indicate that Cr supplementation can increase muscle strength (allied with 4 weeks of strength training) but only in subjects whose estimated Cr uptake and body mass are significantly increased; the greater the Cr uptake and associated body mass changes, the greater the performance gains.
Alison C. Jozsi, Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden, Jane M. Taylor-Jones, William J. Evans, Todd A. Trappe, Wayne W. Campbell and Charlotte A. Peterson
Studies have been performed in humans to identify changes in gene expression that may account for the relatively weak and variable response of aged muscle to resistance exercise. The gene expression profile of skeletal muscle from elderly (62–75 years old) compared to younger (20–30 years old) men demonstrated elevated expression of genes typical of a stress or damage response. The expression of the majority of these genes was unaffected by a single bout of high-intensity resistance exercise in elderly subjects but was altered acutely by exercise in younger subjects so as to approach the pre-exercise levels observed in older subjects. The inability of muscle from elderly subjects to respond to resistance exercise was also apparent in the expression of inflammatory response genes, which increased within 24 hours of the exercise bout only in younger subjects. Other genes with potentially important roles in the adaptation of muscle to exercise, showed a similar or even more robust response in older compared to younger subjects. Taken together, these results may help to explain the variable hypertrophic response of muscle from older individuals to resistance training.
Eimear Enright and Mary O’Sullivan
Popular physical culture serves as a site, subject and medium for young people’s learning (Sandford & Rich, 2006) and impacts their relationship with physical education, physical activity and the construction of their embodied identities. This paper addresses the potential of scrapbooking as a pedagogical and methodological tool to facilitate physical education researchers and teachers to listen to, and better understand and respond to extend students’ existing knowledge of, and critical engagement with popular physical culture. The data draws from a three year Participatory Action Research project that was undertaken in an urban, secondary school and was designed to engage 41 girls (aged 15–19) in understanding, critiquing and transforming aspects of their lives that influenced their perspectives of their bodies and their physical activity and physical education engagement. In this paper the focus is on the engagement of eleven of these girls in a five week popular physical culture unit. The students’ scrapbooks, audio-recordings of classes, a guided conversation, and field notes constitute the data sources. Findings suggest scrapbooking has the potential to allow researchers access, understand and respond to students’ perspectives on popular physical culture and their lives in a way that other methods may not. Pedagogically, scrapbooking supported students in critically appraising and making meaning of “scraps” of popular physical culture.
Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha L. Moss and Craig Twist
Purpose: To determine the utility of running-only and rugby-specific, in-season sprint interval interventions in professional rugby league players. Methods: Thirty-one professional academy rugby players were assigned to a rugby-specific (SITr/s, n = 16) or running-only (SITr, n = 15) sprint interval training group. Measures of speed, power, change of direction ability, prone Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR1) performance, and heart rate recovery were taken before and after the 2-week intervention as were submaximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Internal, external, and perceptual responses were collected during SITr/s and SITr, with well-being and neuromuscular function assessed before each session. Results: Despite contrasting (possible to most likely) internal, external, and perceptual responses to the SIT interventions, possible to most likely within-group improvements in physical characteristics, heart rate recovery, and submaximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1 were observed after both interventions. Between-group analysis favored the SITr/s intervention (trivial to moderate) for changes in 10-m sprint time, countermovement jump, change of direction, and medicine ball throw as well as submaximal (280–440 m) high metabolic power, PlayerLoad™, and acceleration distance during the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Overall changes in well-being or neuromuscular function were unclear. Conclusions: Two weeks of SITr/s and SITr were effective for improving physical characteristics, heart rate recovery, and submaximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1, with no clear change in well-being and neuromuscular function. Between-group analysis favored the SITr/s group, suggesting that the inclusion of sport-specific actions should be considered for in-season conditioning of rugby league players.
it to Psychology Today . We sent the draft to coach, requesting his comments. He never responded. I lacked courage to call for an appointment. After edits came back from Psychology Today , I sent the corrected manuscript to Coach Wooden with a letter, again requesting comments, but no response. We
Trevor Cote, Amy Baltzell and Robert Diehl
“paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, non-judgmentally” (p. 8). The goal of mindfulness exercises is to enhance one’s self-regulation of attention by accepting internal and external states to more effectively respond to what arises ( Kabat-Zinn, 2003 ). Through
Karen E. Collins, Catherine E. Overson and Victor A. Benassi
interactive teaching process seen in peer instruction: delivery of content information followed by a question to which students first independently respond and then gather in small groups for (peer) collaboration to arrive at a consensus ( Mazur, 1997 ). Implementation of peer instruction in courses has been
Aaron T. Scanlan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Daniele Conte, Emilija Stojanović, Nenad Stojiljković, Ratko Stanković, Vladimir Antić and Zoran Milanović
. Effect sizes were interpreted as trivial, <0.20; small, 0.2 to 0.59; moderate, 0.60 to 1.19; large, 1.20 to 1.99; and very large, >2.0. 9 The smallest worthwhile change (SWC) was calculated as 0.2 × between-participant deviation for each outcome measure to classify players as responders, nonresponders
Donal Howley and Mary O’Sullivan
teachers and the TR spoke about moving away from traditional instruction and toward more inclusive practices. Responding to student feedback, the teachers set about increasing activity time and decreasing time on verbal instruction. Ms. Brown discovered that “they wanted less time of [her] talking and