Rock climbing has been traditionally defined as a “masculine” sport (Young, 1997). The experiences of women in this sport have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of high-level female rock climbers. Qualitative analysis of interviews with eight high-level female climbers (ages 19 to 30 years) revealed three general themes: (a) compliance to hegemonic gender norms, (b) questioning hegemonic gender norms, and (c) resisting hegemonic gender norms. A discussion and analysis of these themes suggests that these female rock climbers engaged in a process of negotiated resistance as they attained a climbing identity, gained acceptance into the climbing subculture, and increased performance in the sport of rock climbing.
Karen M. Appleby and Leslee A. Fisher
Although it has generated much theorizing (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; Ellis, 1973; Harris, 1980; Mitchell, 1983), the phenomenon of stress-seeking behavior, as demonstrated in regular long-term involvement in the high-risk sports, has not been researched widely. In an attempt to go beyond the prevalent but simplistic "exhilaration' ' type of explanation for stress-seeking, this study examined the phenomenon in terms of the psychological characteristics associated with successful long-term involvement in the risk sport of rock climbing. Four behavioral characteristics were assessed: sensation seeking (SS), defined as "the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to undertake physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences" (Zuckerman, 1979, p. 10); trait anxiety (TA), which refers to relatively stable individual differences in anxiety proneness (Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970); need for achievement (NAch), which relates to the determinants of direction, magnitude, and persistence of behavior when the individual knows that his or her performance will be evaluated (Atkinson, 1964); and affiliation (AFF), which refers to the tendency to seek out, attain, and maintain a social bond with other people (Alderman, 1974).
There is more demand than ever for schools to equip children with the necessary skills to be physically active. The purpose of the Environmental Perceptions Investigation of Children’s Physical Activity (EPIC-PA) study was to investigate elementary and secondary school children’s perceptions to enhance the school physical activity environment.
Four Australian government schools (2 elementary and 2 secondary) were recruited for the EPIC-PA study. During the study, 78 children were recruited aged 10 to 13 years. The focus group discussions consisted of 54 children (32 elementary and 22 secondary) and the map drawing sessions included 24 children (17 elementary and 7 secondary).
The findings from the EPIC-PA study revealed insight into uniquely desired features to encourage physical activity such as adventure physical activity facilities (eg, rock climbing walls), recreational physical activity facilities (eg, jumping pillows), physical activity excursions, animal activity programs and teacher-directed activities. In addition to specific features, childrens revealed a host of policies for equipment borrowing, access to sports equipment/areas, music during physical activity time and external physical education lessons.
Understanding the multiple suggestions from children of features to enhance physical activity can be used by schools and researchers to create environments conducive to physical activity participation.
Estela Farías-Torbidoni and Demir Barić
, recreational walking and hiking) predominated among visitors to PNAs, and participation in vigorous ones was found to be slightly less represented, as such activities that usually require special natural features (eg, rock climbing, mountaineering); specific climatic conditions (eg, alpine skiing); and high levels of
Tania Pereira, John Durocher and Jamie Burr
contractions, such as rock climbing 24 and off-road vehicle riding, 12 – 14 which may also relate to the increased secretion of hormones and psychoemotional stress, as has been demonstrated in other motorsports. 13 During handgrip dominant sports, a disproportionate increase in HR occurs when matched for VO
Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke and Tim Woodman
-0035 10.1123/jsep.2016-0035 Hardy , L. , & Hutchinson , A. ( 2007 ). Effects of performance anxiety on effort and performance in rock climbing: A test of processing efficiency theory . Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 20 , 147 – 161 . PubMed ID: 17999221 doi:10.1080/10615800701217035 10
Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle and Jamie Poolton
Sciences, 21 , 443 – 457 . PubMed doi:10.1080/0264041031000101809 10.1080/0264041031000101809 Young , P.R. ( 2012 ). The effect of attentional interference on a rock climbing task: A pilot study . Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 3 , 10 – 19 .
Craig Hyatt, Shannon Kerwin, Larena Hoeber and Katherine Sveinson
Julie, Shawn knew little about the sport of rock climbing until his youngest daughter began participating. When asked if his kids influenced what sports he follows, Shawn responded: Maybe the only thing would be, my youngest daughter is a rock climber, which is kind of a unique thing . . . . And I
Jay Johnson, Michelle D. Guerrero, Margery Holman, Jessica W. Chin and Mary Anne Signer-Kroeker
cohesion, a sense of social identity, and strong interpersonal relationships. In fact, recent research conducted by Johnson and Chin ( 2016 ) found that implementing alternative orientations (e.g., rock climbing and canoe tripping) with male and female athletes lead to numerous outcomes such as enhanced
Jeffrey J. Martin
, & McCabe, 2017 ). Escaping a parent’s close monitoring is often seen as liberating ( Willis et al., 2017 ). Second, it is important to recognize that establishing freedom can also be a process. For instance, in one study of special-population youth participating in sport (e.g., skiing) and leisure-type (e.g., rock