The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of selected variables upon role conflict as experienced by teacher/coaches in small colleges and universities. Three types of role conflict—intersender, intrasender, and person-role—were considered. The effects of the gender of the teacher/coach, number of teams coached, type of sport coached, type of classes taught, and role preferred by the teacher/coach were examined. Survey data were collected from 735 randomly selected teacher/coaches from small colleges. The Role Conflict Scale was used to determine the amount of role conflict experienced by the subjects. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques were used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated that subjects who preferred the singular role of coaching experienced significantly more intersender and person-role conflict than those who preferred the dual role of teaching and coaching.
June I. Decker
Allen L. Sack and Robert Thiel
Data from a national survey of college basketball players are analyzed to identify conditions that cause student athlete role conflict and the coping mechanisms used to make this conflict more manageable. NCAA division was found to be strongly related to role conflict regardless of the measure used. Gender was also found to have an impact. Role conflict was also related to scholarship status, the number of hours athletes perceive they must devote to basketball, and whether they believe their coaches make unreasonable demands on their time and energy. It was also found that athletes who ranked low in their high school graduating class and had sought help from an academic counselor were more likely than others to deal with role conflict by taking various academic shortcuts. One final conclusion is that the vast majority of college athletes, with the exception of Division I males, have little problem reconciling their roles as athletes and students.
Susan A. Capel, Becky L. Sisley and Gloria S. Desertrain
This study investigated the relationship of role conflict, role ambiguity, and six demographic variables to burnout in head high school basketball coaches. Respondents (N = 235) included coaches from six western states. Overall, burnout was found to be at a low to medium level. Regression analyses and follow-up canonical correlation analyses indicated that role conflict and role ambiguity were the only two variables consistently related to burnout. Role conflict explained the most variance on all burnout scores except depersonalization, which was best explained by role ambiguity, and personal accomplishment, which was best explained by number of years as a head coach. Ways are discussed in which role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout may be reduced in the coaching profession. Follow-up studies need to consider other factors that may relate to burnout or that may contribute to role conflict and role ambiguity.
Michael Bar-Eli, Arie Shirom, Michal Nir and Ayala Malach Pines
Ninety female athletes at the international and/or national level, engaged in sports that are either “feminine” (n=49) or “non-feminine” (n=41), participated in this study. We predicted (a) a positive relation between role conflict and burnout; and (b) higher role conflict and burnout among athletes from “non-feminine” sports. Questionnaire results revealed a positive relation between role conflict and burnout, albeit only in “feminine” sports. Role conflict was not higher among athletes from “non-feminine” sports. Burnout was somewhat lower among “non-feminine”-sports athletes. “Feminine”-sports athletes were significantly younger, had more training, and felt more restricted by their athletic activity, in comparison to “non-feminine”-sports athletes. Results are interpreted in terms of current theoretical perspectives, such as the “expansionist” approach.
Julie A. Waumsley, Brian Hemmings and Simon M. Payne
To date there has not been a comprehensive discussion in the literature of work-life balance for the sport psychology consultant. The number and complexity of roles often undertaken by consultants may lead to potential stress if roles conflict. Underpinned by Role Theory (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964) and the Spillover Hypothesis (Staines, 1980) this paper draws on the work-life balance literature to present the potential conflicts and ethical dilemmas experienced by the sport psychology consultant as a result of conducting multiple roles. With an applied focus, ways of obtaining work-life balance are suggested through a psychological model outlining personal organizational skills, ongoing supervision/mentoring and reflective practice, and safeguarding leisure time. While certain aspects of the model are built on the UK experience, many of the suggestions will be applicable to sport psychology consultants regardless of their location. Ideas for future research directions involving exploring conflicting roles, work-life balance and coping issues for the sport psychology consultant are presented.
Joy D. Bringer, Celia H. Brackenridge and Lynne H. Johnston
Bringer, Brackenridge, and Johnston (2002) identified role conflict and ambiguity as an emerging theme for some swimming coaches who felt under increased scrutiny because of wider concerns about sexual exploitation in sport (Boocock, 2002). To further understand this emerging theme, 3 coaches who had engaged in sexual relations with athletes, or had allegations of abuse brought against them, took part in in-depth interviews. Grounded theory method (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was adopted to explore how these coaches responded differently to increased public scrutiny. The findings are discussed in relation to how sport psychologists can help to shape perceptions of coaching effectiveness that are congruent with child protection measures. Reflective practice is proposed as one method by which coaches may embed child and athlete protection in their definition of effective coaching, rather than seeing it as an external force to which they must accommodate.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin, Chantal Levesque-Bristol and Bonnie Tjeerdsma Blankenship
The constructs of role stressors, burnout, and resilience have been the topic of numerous research studies in physical education and education more generally. Specific to physical education, much effort has been devoted to the study of teacher/coach role conflict. However, no prior studies have examined how role stressors, burnout, and resilience experienced by teacher/coaches differ from what is experienced by noncoaching teachers. Using role theory as a guiding framework, this study sought to examine differences in role stressors, burnout, and resilience among teacher/coaches and noncoaching teachers from core (e.g., mathematics, language arts) and noncore (e.g., physical education, music) subjects. Analyses were conducted using 2 × 2 (coaching status × subject affiliation) Factorial ANOVAs. While some group differences are highlighted, overall the results suggest that there are more similarities than differences among teacher/coaches and noncoaching teachers. These findings suggest that it is not safe to assume that dual role teacher/coaches will always experience more role stress and burnout than noncoaching teachers. Additional research is needed to more fully understand the implications of being a dual role teacher/coach.
Jennifer E. Bruening and Marlene A. Dixon
The current study examined, via online focus groups, the consequences of work–family conflict at work and at home with 41 mothers who are Division I head coaches. In addition, the authors focused on the coping mechanisms that these women used to achieve success at work and quality of life with family. Results revealed that work–family conflict influenced outcomes with work (e.g., staffing patterns, relationships with athletes, team performance), family (e.g., time spent and relationships with children and spouses or partners), and life (e.g., guilt and exhaustion, balance and perspective, weaving work and family). Coping mechanisms included stress relief, self-awareness, organization and time management, sacrificing aspects of work, support networks, flexibility with hours, and family-friendly policies and cultures. Implications are that the women work to promote change within their circle of influence. Although their efforts might not result in actual policy changes, over which they feel limited control, they might result in changes in perceptions and attitudes.
Elaine M. Blinde and Susan L. Greendorfer
This paper is a synthesis of results from five separate studies examining how recent structural and philosophical changes in women’s intercollegiate sport programs may have altered the sport experience of female athletes. Based on both questionnaire and interview data, it was apparent that athletes participating in sport programs characterized by the greatest change (e.g., post-Title IX programs, programs of the 1980s, product-oriented sport models, and Division I programs of recent years) shared somewhat common experiences — with the presence of conflict being one of the most pervasive themes. Four types of conflict were identified: (a) value alienation, (b) role strain, (c) role conflict, and (d) exploitation. Each of these types of conflict is discussed and examples to substantiate the presence of each form of conflict are presented. Based upon the findings, it is suggested that the changing context and emphases of college sport may have exposed female athletes to different sets of circumstances, expectations, and experiences, thus altering the nature of the sport experience and bringing into question the educational legitimacy of college sport.
Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
the educational research literature include role conflict, role overload, and role ambiguity ( Conley & You, 2009 ). Role conflict pertains to incompatibility of expectations for role performance, arising when different groups possess varying expectations for performance of the same role. An example