To date there has not been a comprehensive discussion in the literature of work-life balance for the sport psychology consultant. The number and complexity of roles often undertaken by consultants may lead to potential stress if roles conflict. Underpinned by Role Theory (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964) and the Spillover Hypothesis (Staines, 1980) this paper draws on the work-life balance literature to present the potential conflicts and ethical dilemmas experienced by the sport psychology consultant as a result of conducting multiple roles. With an applied focus, ways of obtaining work-life balance are suggested through a psychological model outlining personal organizational skills, ongoing supervision/mentoring and reflective practice, and safeguarding leisure time. While certain aspects of the model are built on the UK experience, many of the suggestions will be applicable to sport psychology consultants regardless of their location. Ideas for future research directions involving exploring conflicting roles, work-life balance and coping issues for the sport psychology consultant are presented.
Julie A. Waumsley, Brian Hemmings and Simon M. Payne
Joy D. Bringer, Celia H. Brackenridge and Lynne H. Johnston
Bringer, Brackenridge, and Johnston (2002) identified role conflict and ambiguity as an emerging theme for some swimming coaches who felt under increased scrutiny because of wider concerns about sexual exploitation in sport (Boocock, 2002). To further understand this emerging theme, 3 coaches who had engaged in sexual relations with athletes, or had allegations of abuse brought against them, took part in in-depth interviews. Grounded theory method (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was adopted to explore how these coaches responded differently to increased public scrutiny. The findings are discussed in relation to how sport psychologists can help to shape perceptions of coaching effectiveness that are congruent with child protection measures. Reflective practice is proposed as one method by which coaches may embed child and athlete protection in their definition of effective coaching, rather than seeing it as an external force to which they must accommodate.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin, Chantal Levesque-Bristol and Bonnie Tjeerdsma Blankenship
The constructs of role stressors, burnout, and resilience have been the topic of numerous research studies in physical education and education more generally. Specific to physical education, much effort has been devoted to the study of teacher/coach role conflict. However, no prior studies have examined how role stressors, burnout, and resilience experienced by teacher/coaches differ from what is experienced by noncoaching teachers. Using role theory as a guiding framework, this study sought to examine differences in role stressors, burnout, and resilience among teacher/coaches and noncoaching teachers from core (e.g., mathematics, language arts) and noncore (e.g., physical education, music) subjects. Analyses were conducted using 2 × 2 (coaching status × subject affiliation) Factorial ANOVAs. While some group differences are highlighted, overall the results suggest that there are more similarities than differences among teacher/coaches and noncoaching teachers. These findings suggest that it is not safe to assume that dual role teacher/coaches will always experience more role stress and burnout than noncoaching teachers. Additional research is needed to more fully understand the implications of being a dual role teacher/coach.
Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
the educational research literature include role conflict, role overload, and role ambiguity ( Conley & You, 2009 ). Role conflict pertains to incompatibility of expectations for role performance, arising when different groups possess varying expectations for performance of the same role. An example
Kim C. Graber, K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
role conflict, which can occur when the pressures to perform one role (e.g., research) limits time spent in other roles (e.g., teaching; Ward, 2016 ). This is particularly the case in disciplines, such as PETE, that are challenged by low enrollments and the need to actively recruit preservice teachers
Leigh Jones, Lynne Evans and Richard Mullen
This is a follow-up article to an action research study that explored the effects of an imagery intervention on an elite rugby union player conducted over a 14-week period during the competitive season (Evans, Jones, & Mullen, 2004). A key feature of the study was that the same individual fulfilled multiple roles, specifically those of trainee sport psychologist, coach, and researcher. The aim of this article is to explore, from a trainee sport psychologist’s perspective, some of the issues that resulted from fulfilling multiple roles, both in the context of the study and in professional practice generally. The issues that emerged were consistent with the dual-role literature and involved role conflict surrounding areas of responsibility, scientific evidence versus social validity, confidentiality versus public statement, and the interpersonal welfare of both athlete and coach-sport psychologist (Ellickson & Brown, 1990). The findings highlighted (a) the importance of establishing ground rules (and planning), (b) the intensified emotional demands placed on the multirole practitioner, (c) the importance of involving a critical friend or outside agent, and (d) the potential for role conflict and the threat to objectivity.
High school physical education programs in South Carolina have undergone a major reform effort which was implemented through extensive staff development called the Physical Education Institute (PEI). How to teach toward student performance indicators became the focus of the in-services. This study identified factors that facilitated or hindered implementing the performance indicators, and examined the extent to which key players from three selected programs of secondary physical education were able to achieve the goals of the reform effort. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, and videotaping lessons. Results reveal that “lead teachers” facilitated the extent to which programs met the goals of reform. The teaching/coaching role conflict was a main hindrance. Each school and teacher met each of the student performance indicators to varying degrees. Implications include the need for a shared reform, holding teachers and students accountable, and the need for administrators and university faculty to be involved.
Naomi Fejgin, Nevat Ephraty and David Ben-Sira
This paper presents an analysis of the nature of physical education teaching and reports a study of work environment factors relating to burnout in a sample of physical education teachers in Israel. Based on teachers’ responses to a questionnaire, a factor analysis of 80 items describing work conditions found 15 factors to explain 57% of the variance in the work environment. In a multiple regression of all variables in the model on burnout, none of the personal or occupational variables entered the equation. However, 3 of 15 factors describing work conditions affected teacher burnout: Low Remuneration (β = .359), Bureaucratic Limitations (β =211), and Role Limitations (β = .204). These factors include some items common to all teachers but also point at some problems related to the unique nature of physical education teaching, such as social isolation, role conflict, lack of diverse activities, and lack of opportunity for self-development.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Kelly L. Simonton and Angela Simonton
opportunities for research, and more adept at balancing teaching and research roles. However, as they gained experience in teaching and research, they also began to experience role conflict as they tried to manage both roles simultaneously in light of an increasing interest in research ( Marsh & Hattie, 2002
Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen and Goran Kentta
predictive of burnout in male and female collegiate coaches. Furthermore, Kelley ( 1994 ) and Kelley and Gill ( 1993 ) found that in collegiate coaching, stress appraisals (e.g., perceived stress, role conflict, and ‘coaching issues’) were significantly related to all three dimensions of burnout. However, as