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Susan A. Capel, Becky L. Sisley and Gloria S. Desertrain

This study investigated the relationship of role conflict, role ambiguity, and six demographic variables to burnout in head high school basketball coaches. Respondents (N = 235) included coaches from six western states. Overall, burnout was found to be at a low to medium level. Regression analyses and follow-up canonical correlation analyses indicated that role conflict and role ambiguity were the only two variables consistently related to burnout. Role conflict explained the most variance on all burnout scores except depersonalization, which was best explained by role ambiguity, and personal accomplishment, which was best explained by number of years as a head coach. Ways are discussed in which role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout may be reduced in the coaching profession. Follow-up studies need to consider other factors that may relate to burnout or that may contribute to role conflict and role ambiguity.

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Jesse A. Steinfeldt, Leslie A. Rutkowski, Ellen L. Vaughan and Matthew C. Steinfeldt

In order to identify factors associated with on-field moral functioning among student athletes within the unique context of football, we examined masculine gender role conflict, moral atmosphere, and athletic identity. Using structural equation modeling to assess survey data from 204 high school football players, results demonstrated that moral atmosphere (i.e., the influence of coaches and teammates) was significantly associated with participants’ process of on-field moral functioning across the levels of judgment, intention, and behavior. Neither masculine gender role conflict nor athletic identity significantly predicted moral functioning, but the results indicated that participants’ identification with the athlete role significantly predicted conflict with socialized gender roles. Results suggest that in the aggressive and violent sport of football, coaches can have a direct influence on players’ moral functioning process. Coaches can also have an indirect effect by influencing all the players so that a culture of ethical play can be cultivated among teammates and spread from the top down.

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Susan A. Jackson and Herbert W. Marsh

The purpose of this study was to examine relations between women's involvment in sports and three psychological constructs: role conflict, sex-role identification, and multidimensional self-concepts. The three groups comprised female powerlifters competing in a national championship (n = 30), high school female athletes (n = 46), and high school female nonathletes (n = 46). Role conflict was not substantial except for a few specific areas related to conflicting expectations of appropriate female and athlete behavior. Both athletic groups scored substantially higher on masculinity (M) and on self-concept of physical ability than the nonathletic group, but there were no group differences on femininity (F) and few substantial differences in other areas of self-concept. Hence the results provide further support for the construct validity of androgyny and for the multidimensionality of self-concept. The major findings, that female athletes can be more M without being less F, and that female athletic involvement has positive benefits without producing any loss in F or in self-concept, dispels a popular myth about women's involvement in sports.

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Erika Borkoles, Damian Farrow and Remco C.J. Polman

. Beauchamp , M.R. , & Bray , S.R. ( 2001 ). Role ambiguity and role conflict within interdependent teams . Small Group Research, 32 ( 2 ), 133 – 157 . doi:10.1177/104649640103200202 10.1177/104649640103200202 Beauchamp , M.R. , Bray , S.R. , Eys , M.A. , & Carron , A.V. ( 2002 ). Role

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Philp Sullivan, Jessica Murphy and Mishka Blacker

( Comeaux & Harrison, 2011 ), role conflict and monitoring body composition ( Aries, McCarthy, Salovey, & Banaji, 2004 ). Storch, Storch, Killiany, and Roberti ( 2005 ) conducted one of the first studies on mental health of student athletes. They compared the responses of 105 intercollegiate athletes with

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Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis and Henrik Gustafsson

.2016.00875 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00875 Leo , F.M. , González-Ponce , I. , Sánchez-Miguel , P.A. , Ivarsson , A. , & García-Calvo , T. ( 2015 ). Role ambiguity, role conflict, team conflict, cohesion and collective efficacy in sport teams: A multilevel analysis . Psychology of Sport and

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Richard E. Tahtinen and Hafrun Kristjansdottir

. , & Speight , Q.L. ( 2009 ). Gender role conflict and stigma toward help-seeking among college football players . Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 10 ( 4 ), 261 – 272 . doi:10.1037/a0017223 10.1037/a0017223 Steinfeldt , J.A. , Zakrajsek , R. , Carter , H. , & Steinfeldt , M.C. ( 2011

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Susanna Kola-Palmer, Samantha Buckley, Gabrielle Kingston, Jonathan Stephen, Alison Rodriguez, Nicole Sherretts and Kiara Lewis

, M.C. ( 2012 ). Profile of masculine norms and help-seeking stigma in college football . Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 1 ( 1 ), 58 – 71 . doi:10.1037/a0024919 10.1037/a0024919 Steinfeldt , J.A. , Steinfeldt , M.C. , England , B. , & Speight , Q.L. ( 2009 ). Gender role

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Wesley J. Wilson and K. Andrew R. Richards

multidimensional perspective on teacher–coach role conflict . Quest, 64 , 164 – 176 . doi:10.1080/00336297.2012.693751 10.1080/00336297.2012.693751 Richards , K.A.R. , Templin , T.J. , & Gaudreault , K.L. ( 2013 ). Understanding the realities of school life: Recommendations for the preparation of

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Colin G. Pennington and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

were granted status and rewards for coaching but not for teaching PE ( Templin, Sparkes, Grant, & Schempp, 1994 ), which has contributed to teacher/coach role conflict ( Woods & Lynn, 2014 ). Some teachers combatted marginalization by delivering high-quality programs, advocating for the discipline, and