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Brigid Byrd and Jeffrey J. Martin

The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on climate perceptions of youth participating in a middle school running program. Method: Seventy-four youth from a middle school track and cross country program in the Midwest participated. Results: Based on multiple regression analyses we predicted 52% of the variance in feelings of belonging largely due to perceptions of leadership emotional support and task climate and 25% of the variance in feelings of social responsibility largely due to perceptions of a caring climate. Conclusions: Our findings support the importance of middle school running programs which offered an environment allowing multiple psychosocial benefits, such as nurturing feelings of belonging and social responsibility.

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Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

Running as a recreational activity has become a popular leisure pursuit. Surveys indicate approximately 65 million Americans ( Statista, 2017a ), 50 million Europeans ( Breedveld, Scheerder, & Borgers, 2015 ), and 61 million Australians ( Medibank, 2016 ) run regularly. Globally, marathon running

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John B. Nezlek, Marzena Cypryańska, Piotr Cypryański, Karolina Chlebosz, Karolina Jenczylik, Joanna Sztachańska and Anna M. Zalewska

There has been a marked increase in recreational running over the past few decades (e.g.,  Breedveld, Scheerder, & Borgers, 2015 ). The popularity of running is likely due (at least in part) to its advantages compared with many forms of exercise: Running has a low entry cost, people can run

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Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Stefania Di Gangi and Beat Knechtle

Marathon running maintains a high level of popularity. However, more people run a half-marathon than a marathon in the United States. In 2016, a total of 1,900,000 runners finished a half-marathon, which is slightly fewer than the 1,986,600 finishers in 2015 and the record of more than 2

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Alyssa Evans, Gavin Q. Collins, Parker G. Rosquist, Noelle J. Tuttle, Steven J. Morrin, James B. Tracy, A. Jake Merrell, William F. Christensen, David T. Fullwood, Anton E. Bowden and Matthew K. Seeley

, Braun, Schaenzer, 2011 ; Sedlock, Fissinger, Melby, 1989 ). The present work utilized an instrumented athletic shoe with four novel nanocomposite piezoresponsive foam (NCPF) sensors (Figure  1a ) for the purposes of measuring 3D ground reaction forces during walking and running outside of a traditional

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen and Kristian Overgaard

higher running speeds ( Jørgensen et al., 2009 ; John et al., 2010 ). Notably, emerging evidence suggest that thigh-placed accelerometers may be a valid alternative in order to distinguish between various types of activities, such as sitting, standing, cycling, walking, and running ( Skotte et al., 2014

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Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann and Bernd Strauß

). Although all outcome variables can be regarded as important, some of them (e.g., speed or perceived exertion) can be easily influenced by participants’ motivation to perform well on the task making it necessary to control for other influences (e.g., motivation). Therefore, running economy is a favorable

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Duncan Simpson, Phillip G. Post, Greg Young and Peter R. Jensen

Ultramarathon (UM) running is a rapidly growing sport throughout the world, yet to date it has received little attention in sport psychology literature. To obtain further insight into this sport, the current study examined the training and competition experiences of UM runners. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with 26 participants ranging in age from 32 to 67 years (M = 44.1 yrs, SD = 8.1). Qualitative analysis of the interview data identified meaning units, which were grouped into major themes. A final thematic structure revealed five major themes that characterized the participant’s experience of UM running: preparation and strategy, management, discovery, personal achievement, and community. Taken together, the present results extend previous research on UM running and provide a number of suggestions for sport psychology consultants working with UM runners.

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Jeffery J. Summers, Victoria J. Machin and Gregory I. Sargent

This study was designed to examine some of the psychosocial factors underlying the recent marathon boom. A survey of 459 marathoners varying in age, sex, ability, and experience was conducted to assess their reasons for running a marathon, the outcomes derived, and their experiences during a marathon. Information was also sought regarding the psychological aspects of running in general, particularly the concept of addiction to running. Measures of addiction to running produced a consistent pattern of sex differences, with females evidencing higher levels of addiction than males. With respect to reasons for running a marathon and perceived outcomes, some interesting trends were evident as a function of age. It was suggested that the attraction of the marathon to people of all ages and abilities may lie partly in its unique ability to satisfy a wide range of needs, both extrinsic and intrinsic.

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Alex V. Rowlands, John M. Schuna Jr., Victoria H. Stiles and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

Previous research has reported peak vertical acceleration and peak loading rate thresholds beneficial to bone mineral density (BMD). Such thresholds are difficult to translate into meaningful recommendations for physical activity. Cadence (steps/min) is a more readily interpretable measure of ambulatory activity.

Objective:

To examine relationships between cadence, peak vertical acceleration and peak loading rate during ambulation and identify the cadence associated with previously reported bone-beneficial thresholds for peak vertical acceleration (4.9 g) and peak loading rate (43 BW/s).

Methods:

Ten participants completed 8 trials each of: slow walking, brisk walking, slow running, and fast running. Acceleration data were captured using a GT3×+ accelerometer worn at the hip. Peak loading rate was collected via a force plate.

Results:

Strong relationships were identified between cadence and peak vertical acceleration (r = .96, P < .05) and peak loading rate (r = .98, P < .05). Regression analyses indicated cadences of 157 ± 12 steps/min (2.6 ± 0.2 steps/s) and 122 ± 10 steps/min (2.0 ± 0.2 steps/s) corresponded with the 4.9 g peak vertical acceleration and 43 BW/s peak loading rate thresholds, respectively.

Conclusions:

Cadences ≥ 2.0 to 2.6 steps/s equate to acceleration and loading rate thresholds related to bone health. Further research is needed to investigate whether the frequency of daily occurrences of this cadence is associated with BMD.