Running has become one of the most common sports and recreational activities around the world. The sport is also growing each year, where more people than ever are beginning to explore running trails for the first time due to the increased interest in more recreational, unorganized, and lighter
Christian A. Clermont, Lauren C. Benson, W. Brent Edwards, Blayne A. Hettinga and Reed Ferber
Katherine A. Boyer, Julia Freedman Silvernail and Joseph Hamill
Injury rates among runners are high, with the knee injured most frequently. The interaction of running experience and running mechanics is not well understood but may be important for understanding relative injury risk in low vs higher mileage runners. The study aim was to apply a principal component analysis (PCA) to test the hypothesis that differences exist in kinematic waveforms and coordination between higher and low mileage groups. Gait data were collected for 50 subjects running at 3.5 m/s assigned to either a low (< 15 miles/wk) or higher (> 20 miles/wk, 1 year experience) mileage group. A PCA was performed on a matrix of trial vectors of all force, joint kinematic, and center of pressure data. The projection of the subjects’ trial vectors onto the linear combination of PC7, PC10, PC13, and PC19 was significantly different between the higher and lower mileage groups (d = 0.63, P = .012). This resultant PC represented variation in transverse plane pelvic rotation, hip internal rotation, and hip and knee abduction and adduction angles. These results suggest the coordination of lower extremity segment kinematics is different for lower and higher mileage runners. The adopted patterns of coordinated motion may explain the lower incidence of overuse knee injuries for higher mileage runners.
Christopher L. MacLean, Irene S. Davis and Joseph Hamill
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of varying running shoe midsole composition on lower extremity dynamics with and without a custom foot orthotic intervention. Three-dimensional dynamics were collected on 12 female runners who had completed 6 weeks of custom foot orthotic therapy. Participants completed running trials in 3 running shoe midsole conditions—with and without a custom foot orthotic intervention. Results from the current study revealed that only maximum rearfoot eversion velocity was influenced by the midsole durometer of the shoe. Maximum rearfoot eversion velocity was significantly decreased for the hard shoe compared with the soft shoe. However, the orthotic intervention in the footwear led to significant decreases in several dynamic variables. The results suggest that the major component influencing the rearfoot dynamics was the orthotic device and not the shoe composition. In addition, data suggest that the foot orthoses appear to compensate for the lesser shoe stability enabling it to function in a way similar to that of a shoe of greater stability.
Oleg Verbitsky, Joseph Mizrahi, Arkady Voloshin, July Treiger and Eli Isakov
The goal of this research was to analyze the effects of fatigue on the shock waves generated by foot strike. Twenty-two subjects were instrumented with an externally attached, lightweight accelerometer placed over the tibial tuberosity. The subjects ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed near their anaerobic threshold. Fatigue was established when the end-tidal CO2 pressure decreased. The results indicated that approximately half of the subjects reached the fatigue state toward the end of the test. Whenever fatigue occurred, the peak acceleration was found to increase. It was thus concluded that there is a clear association between fatigue and increased heel strike–induced shock waves. These results have a significant implication for the etiology of running injuries, since shock wave attenuation has been previously reported to play an important role in preventing such injuries.
Jonathan Sinclair, Sarah J. Hobbs, Paul J. Taylor, Graham Currigan and Andrew Greenhalgh
In running analyses where both kinetic and kinematic information is recorded, participants are required to make foot contact with a force and/or pressure measuring transducer. Problems arise if participants modify their gait patterns to ensure contact with the device. There is currently a paucity of research investigating the influence of different underfoot kinetic measuring devices on 3-dimensional kinematics of running. Fifteen participants ran at 4.0 m/s in four different conditions: over a floor embedded force plate, Footscan, Matscan, and with no device. Three-dimensional angular kinematic parameters were collected using an eight camera motion analysis system. Hip, knee, and ankle joint kinematics were contrasted using repeated-measures ANOVAs. Participants also rated their subjective comfort in striking each of the three force measuring devices. Significant differences from the uninhibited condition were observed using the Footscan and Matscan in all three planes of rotation, whereas participants subjectively rated the force plate significantly more comfortable than either the Footscan/Matscan devices. The findings of the current investigation therefore suggest that the disguised floor embedded force plate offers the most natural running condition. It is recommended that analyses using devices such as the Footscan/Matscan mats overlying the laboratory surface during running should be interpreted with caution.
Brigit De Wit and Dirk De Clercq
This study investigates the timing differences between subtalar and knee joint movement of 9 male subjects while running barefoot and shod at three velocities. An alternative approach is used by dividing the pronation curve into 3 phases. Consequently, the timing of the maximum pronation phase was evaluated, not just the event of the maximum pronation value. Statistical differences were tested using the General Linear Method and paired t tests (p £.05), The extension of the knee starts both barefoot and shod significantly earlier than the resupination phase. Individual analysis shows that a larger time discrepancy between knee extension and the end of pronation mainly depends on the presence of bimodal pronation curves. The relative time differences significantly diminish with increased running velocity. Results suggest that by using this alternative approach, more detailed and useful information is available to describe the lime relationship between flexion-extension of the knee and pro-supination.
Adam C. Clansey, Mark J. Lake, Eric S. Wallace, Tom Feehally and Michael Hanlon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged high-intensity running on impact accelerations in trained runners. Thirteen male distance runners completed two 20-minute treadmill runs at speeds corresponding to 95% of onset of blood lactate accumulation. Leg and head accelerations were collected for 20 s every fourth minute. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were recorded during the third and last minute of each run. RPE responses increased (P < .001) from the start (11.8 ± 0.9, moderate intensity) of the first run to the end (17.7 ± 1.5, very hard) of the second run. Runners maintained their leg impact acceleration, impact attenuation, stride length, and stride frequency characteristics with prolonged run duration. However, a small (0.11–0.14g) but significant increase (P < .001) in head impact accelerations were observed at the end of both first and second runs. It was concluded that trained runners are able to control leg impact accelerations during sustained high-intensity running. Alongside the substantial increases in perceived exertion levels, running mechanics and frequency domain impact attenuation levels remained constant. This suggests that the present trained runners are able to cope from a mechanical perspective despite an increased physiological demand.
Brigid Byrd and Jeffrey J. Martin
The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on climate perceptions of youth participating in a middle school running program. Method: Seventy-four youth from a middle school track and cross country program in the Midwest participated. Results: Based on multiple regression analyses we predicted 52% of the variance in feelings of belonging largely due to perceptions of leadership emotional support and task climate and 25% of the variance in feelings of social responsibility largely due to perceptions of a caring climate. Conclusions: Our findings support the importance of middle school running programs which offered an environment allowing multiple psychosocial benefits, such as nurturing feelings of belonging and social responsibility.
Deryn Bath, Louise A. Turner, Andrew N. Bosch, Ross Tucker, Estelle V. Lambert, Kevin G. Thompson and Alan St. Clair Gibson
The aim of this study was to examine performance, pacing strategy and perception of effort during a 5 km time trial while running with or without the presence of another athlete.
Eleven nonelite male athletes participated in five 5 km time trials: two self-paced, maximal effort trials performed at the start and end of the study, and three trials performed in the presence of a second runner. In the three trials, the second runner ran either in front of the subject, behind the subject, or next to the subject. Performance times, heart rate, RPE, and a subjective assessment of the effect of the second runner on the athlete’s performance were recorded during each of the trials.
There was no significant difference in performance times, heart rate or RPE between any of the five trials. Running speed declined from the 1st to the 4th kilometer and then increased for the last kilometer in all five trials. Following the completion of all trials, 9 of the 11 subjects perceived it to be easier to complete the 5 km time trial with another runner in comparison with running alone.
While the athletes perceived their performance to be improved by the presence of another runner, their pacing strategy, running speed, heart rate and RPE were not significantly altered. These findings indicate that an athlete’s subconscious pacing strategy is robust and is not altered by the presence of another runner.
Kim Bennell, Kay Crossley, Tim Wrigley and Julie Nitschke
The aim of our study was to assess the interday test-retest reliability (focussing on the separate contribution of systematic and random error) of selected 10-trial mean ground reaction force (GRF) parameters and GRF symmetry indices measured during running. Ten competitive male heel-strike runners (aged, 26.2 ± 5.7 years) performed 10 successful running trials across the force platform at a constant velocity of 4.0 m · s-1 ±10% wearing their customary running footwear. The testing procedure was repeated under similar conditions 1 week later. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the means of Test 1 and Test 2 for most GRF parameters and symmetry indices, indicating non-significant systematic error. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 to 0.99 for GRF parameters. Random error was small with SEmeas less than 10% of the Test 1 mean value for almost all GRF parameters. Symmetry indices displayed correlation coefficients ranging from −0.44 to 0.91. Based on these and the size of the SEmeas, the symmetry indices displayed variable reliability, with the most reliable being those associated with peak vertical active force and peak horizontal propulsive force.