Using achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as theoretical frameworks, this study examined relationships between parents’ beliefs and their children’s motivation in an elementary physical education running program. Participants included 102 parents and their children (49 boys; 53 girls) in the third and fourth grades. The parents completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, competence beliefs, task values, and gender stereotypic beliefs about running. Children’s persistence/effort was assessed by the number of laps run/walked over the year-long running program. Performance was measured by the timed mile run. Results indicated that only parents’ competence/value beliefs were predictive of their children’s persistence/effort and mile run performance. Gender stereotypic beliefs influenced achievement goals the parents adopted for their children. Findings provided empirical support for the importance of parental beliefs for children’s motivation in physical activity.
Ping Xiang, Ron McBride and April Bruene
Deryn Bath, Louise A. Turner, Andrew N. Bosch, Ross Tucker, Estelle V. Lambert, Kevin G. Thompson and Alan St. Clair Gibson
The aim of this study was to examine performance, pacing strategy and perception of effort during a 5 km time trial while running with or without the presence of another athlete.
Eleven nonelite male athletes participated in five 5 km time trials: two self-paced, maximal effort trials performed at the start and end of the study, and three trials performed in the presence of a second runner. In the three trials, the second runner ran either in front of the subject, behind the subject, or next to the subject. Performance times, heart rate, RPE, and a subjective assessment of the effect of the second runner on the athlete’s performance were recorded during each of the trials.
There was no significant difference in performance times, heart rate or RPE between any of the five trials. Running speed declined from the 1st to the 4th kilometer and then increased for the last kilometer in all five trials. Following the completion of all trials, 9 of the 11 subjects perceived it to be easier to complete the 5 km time trial with another runner in comparison with running alone.
While the athletes perceived their performance to be improved by the presence of another runner, their pacing strategy, running speed, heart rate and RPE were not significantly altered. These findings indicate that an athlete’s subconscious pacing strategy is robust and is not altered by the presence of another runner.
Romuald Lepers, Paul J. Stapley and Thomas Cattagni
Age-related changes in performance affect all sport disciplines from sprinting to endurance events. 1 , 2 For swimming and running, previous research has shown that performance decrements with age are greater for endurance events than for sprinting events. 3 – 5 However, the reasons that exercise
Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen and Cailbhe Doherty
a time frame) 1 (2.8) 3 (2.6) Number of sessions per week 1 (2.8) 3 (2.6) Critical velocity 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Coefficient of variation of running velocity during the marathon 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Difference in VO 2 between baseline and lactate increase 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Ectomorphy 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Energy
Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland
Distance-running performance is dependent on the speed that can be sustained for the duration of an event. This speed is determined by the interaction of several physiological factors 1 that include maximal rate of oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ), anaerobic capacity, fractional utilization of V ˙ O
Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts
Running economy, defined as the oxygen or energy cost of transport, has been found to be an important and reliable predictor of running performance. 1 The value of running economy as a performance predictor arises because both metabolic and biomechanical aspects contribute to it, and by extension
Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa
endurance events, with incidence rates of ≥60% consistently observed in individuals partaking in ultraendurance competitions. This far exceeds incidence rates in shorter endurance running events, such as half-marathon, marathon, and exertional stress <2 hr, with minimal symptoms reported ( Costa et
Amy Waters, Elissa Phillips, Derek Panchuk and Andrew Dawson
. The purpose of this paper is to establish and compare the experiential knowledge of these two groups in relation to elite sprint running technique. A large portion of an elite coach’s knowledge is derived from experience as an athlete and/or as a coach ( Greenwood et al., 2012 ; Nash & Sproule, 2009
Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman
Ultramarathon running events and participation numbers have increased progressively over the past three decades ( Deutsche Ultramarathon Vereinigung, 2018 ). Anecdotally, there has been growing interest from both amateur and elite endurance runners looking for new adventurous courses and challenges
Lilian Roos, Wolfgang Taube, Carolin Tuch, Klaus Michael Frei and Thomas Wyss
and 27 women) participated in this study, age = 31.3 (9.5) years, height = 1.8 (0.1) m, and weight = 68.3 (10.8) kg. All the athletes were recreational or competitive runners or triathletes with 6.8 (4.8) years of running experience at their current level. The athletes performed on average 4.3 (2