possibility of developing a salary cap for college coaching salaries. This particular idea allows students to propose positions to address the issue while learning more about the legal implications of their actions. The case study is divided into four parts. Part I includes teaching notes for instructors on
Evie Oregon, Lauren McCoy, Lacee’ Carmon-Johnson and Angel Brown-Reveles
Lawrence Hadley and Elizabeth Gustafson
Earnings equations are estimated for major league baseball hitters and pitchers using salary data for the 1989 season. The results indicate that final-offer salary arbitration and long-term contracts have a large positive impact on salaries. The impact of free-agency eligibility is also positive, but smaller man arbitration eligibility. This implies that some players have used the arbitration process to extract above-market salaries. Therefore it is concluded that it would be in the interest of the owners to replace arbitration with earlier eligibility for free agency.
This paper derives equivalent gross salary for Major League Baseball free agents weighing offers from teams based in states with different income tax rates. After discussing tax law applicable to professional sports teams’ players, including “jock taxes” and the interrelationship of state and federal taxes, this paper builds several models to determine equivalent salary. A base-case derivation, oversimplified by ignoring nonsalary income and Medicare tax, demonstrates that salary adjustment from a more tax expensive state’s team requires solely a state (but not federal) tax gross-up. Subsequent derivations, introducing nonsalary income and Medicare tax, demonstrate full Medicare but small federal tax gross-ups are also required. This paper applies the model to equalize salary offers from two teams in different states in a highly stylized example approximating the 2010 free agency of pitcher Cliff Lee. Aspects of the models may also be used to inform other sports’ players of their after-tax income if salary caps limit the ability to receive adequately grossed-up salaries.
Morris B. Holbrook and Clifford J. Shultz II
The spectacular salaries paid to various baseball stars—and the ongoing player-management acrimony over those salaries—leads one to question the relationship between performance and compensation during what may someday be referred to as the “golden era” of free agency. After reading the available work on the determinants of ballplayer compensation, one may still wonder what effect today's hit, strikeout, assist, or error exerts on tomorrow's salary—or, more colloquially, “How much is a home run worth?” The present study addresses these questions from the vantage point of a salary-updating model. This model assumes no salary cap and posits that, according to an updating or ratcheting process, future salary depends on current salary and current performance.
Stacy Warner and Emily S. Sparvero
.g., Ryan & Deci, 2000 ). Previous research into extrinsic motivators have examined salary on performance (e.g., Koschmann, 2017 ; Torgler & Schmidt, 2007 ), an upcoming contract on performance (e.g., Frick, 2011 ; White & Sheldon, 2014 ), and recently signed contract on performance (e.g., Berri
Noni Zaharia, Anastasios Kaburakis and David Pierce
The growth of sport management programs housed in (or with formal curriculum-based ties to) a school of business indicates more academic institutions are reconsidering sport management as a business-oriented field. Thus, research is necessary regarding benchmarking information on the state of these academic programs. The purpose of this study is to explore trends on administration, housing, accreditation, faculty performance indicators and research requirements, as well as salaries for faculty and alumni of such programs. Data were submitted by 74 department chairs and program directors employed in U.S. business schools featuring sport management programs. Results indicate that the majority of sport business programs are part of an interdisciplinary department; COSMA accreditation is largely viewed as redundant; and, depending on business schools’ accreditation, variability exists concerning faculty performance measures and research impact, as well as faculty and alumni salaries. These findings suggest considerable progress of sport management programs within business schools.
Robert P. Mathner and Christina L.L. Martin
The study sought to examine the accuracy of sport management students’ perceptions of career expectations when compared with perceptions of sport management practitioners. A secondary purpose of the study was to analyze differences in such perceptions over a thirteen year period, comparing only graduate students’ and practitioners’ perceptions. The sample (N = 544) was inclusive of sport management graduate and undergraduate students and sport management industry practitioners. Two stages were used to gather data (1996 and 2010 data collection periods), thus slightly different collection procedures were used. Overall results indicate that significant differences existed between the students’ and practitioners’ perspectives regarding multiple areas: salary expectations, time until first sport management job, time before advancement opportunities, and others. Implications from this study will allow sport management advisors, faculty, and students to have a reference for current industry career trends. With this, students can be better informed and equipped to make career decisions.
Meg G. Hancock and T. Christopher Greenwell
Higher education administrators have called on faculty to strategize ways in which to fill classroom seats, as well as recruit and retain diverse students. Understanding current student populations should be of increasing importance to sport management faculty as new programs are established at colleges and universities each year. A sample of 330 sport management students from introductory sport management courses at six different schools was surveyed to identify factors influencing their selection of a sport management major. Results indicate students select the sport management major because they have an interest in sport and working in the sport industry. Program quality and program convenience were also important selection factors. Women had lower salary perceptions and minority students had lower perceptions across most selection factors. Understanding these factors can help programs tailor their marketing and recruiting efforts in an effort to develop a more diverse classroom and workforce.
Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell
Internships are essential parts of quality sport management education, enabling students to link the classroom - professional environments through observation, exploration, and participation. Given the significance of the internship experience, it is important to determine if all students have the same opportunities for learning. The purpose of this study was to describe working (i.e., learning conditions) for female and male sport management interns working in college sport. Participants were collegiate athletics administrators (N = 257) who provided information on seven aspects of students’ (N = 379) internship experiences. A Chi Square model found differences (p = <.05) favoring males in intern selection, employment status, and salary, as well as job assignments in sports information, corporate sales, and compliance. In addition, female interns performed more clerical duties than males. Supervisor gender was a significant factor in some cases. It was concluded that biases favoring males exist in many facets of collegiate internships.