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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Matthew B. Fortes, Katharine Richardson, James L.J. Bilzon and Neil P. Walsh

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) drink consumed immediately after endurance exercise on saliva antimicrobial proteins known to be important for host defense. Eleven male runners ran for 2 hr at 75% VO2max on 2 occasions and immediately postexercise were provided, in randomized order, either a placebo solution (CON) or a CHO-PRO solution containing 1.2 g CHO/kg body mass (BM) and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM (CHO-PRO). The solutions were flavor and volume equivalent (12 ml/kg BM). Saliva flow rate, lysozyme, α-amylase, and secretory (S) IgA concentrations were determined from unstimulated saliva samples collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 30 min until 180 min postexercise. CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a lower saliva flow rate than with CON at 30 and 60 min postexercise. Saliva lysozyme concentration increased immediately postexercise in both trials compared with preexercise (p< .05), and CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a higher saliva lysozyme concentration in the first hour of recovery than with CON (125% greater at 30 min, 94% greater at 60 min; p< .01). Saliva SIgA concentration decreased below preexercise concentrations 90–150 min postexercise (p< .001), with no effect of CHO-PRO. Saliva α-amylase activity was unaffected by exercise or CHO-PRO refeeding. CHO-PRO refeeding did not alter the secretion rates of any saliva variables during recovery. In conclusion, immediate refeeding with CHO-PRO evoked a greater saliva lysozyme concentration during the first hour of recovery after prolonged exercise than ingestion of placebo but had minimal impact on saliva α-amylase and SIgA responses.

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Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh and Samuel J. Oliver

characteristics of each dehydration type. Potential candidate markers to identify both types of dehydration are urine, saliva, ratings of thirst and cardiovascular parameters, including resting and postural changes in heart rate and blood pressure, and heart rate variability (HRV; Cheuvront, Ely, Kenefick

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Sam Coad, Bon Gray, George Wehbe and Christopher McLellan


To examine the response or pre- and postmatch salivary immunoglobulin A concentration ([s-IgA]) to Australian Football League (AFL) match play and investigate the acute and cumulative influence of player workload and postmatch [s-IgA] after repeated participation in AFL match play.


Eleven elite AFL athletes (21.8 ± 2.4 y, 186.9 ± 7.9 cm, 87.4 ± 7.5 kg) were monitored throughout 3 matches during the preseason that were separated by 7 d. Saliva samples were collected across each AFL match at 24 h and 1 h prematch and 1, 12, 36, and 60 h postmatch to determine [s-IgA]. Global positioning systems (GPS) with integrated triaxial accelerometers were used to determine total player workload during match play. Hypothesis testing was conducted for time-dependent changes in [s-IgA] and player load using a repeated-measures ANOVA.


Player load during match 3 (1266 ± 124.6 AU) was significantly (P < .01) greater than in match 1 (1096 ± 115.1 AU) and match 2 (1082 ± 90.4 AU). Across match 3, [s-IgA] was significantly (P < .01) suppressed at 2 postmatch measures (12 and 36 h) compared with prematch measures (24 and 1 h), which coincided with significantly (P < .01) elevated player load.


The findings indicate that an increase in player load during AFL preseason match play resulted in compromised postmatch mucosal immunological function. Longitudinal assessment of AFL-match player load and mucosal immunological function across the first 60 h of recovery may augment monitoring and preparedness strategies for athletes.

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Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin and Yann Le Meur

performed and saliva samples were collected before the preconditioning session (Pre), immediately after  the preloading session (Post 1), before the testing session (Post 2), and after the testing session (Post 3). It is important to mention that the players who took part in this study were under

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

-leg impairment Abbreviations: SCI, spinal cord injury; T6i, incomplete lesion at the sixth thoracic vertebra; V ˙ O 2 peak , peak rate of oxygen uptake. Note: Values are presented as mean (SD), where appropriate. Study Design Saliva samples were collected over 23 consecutive weeks (February–July) and a further

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

previously been validated in swimmers. 8 Salivary biomarkers are easily accessible and noninvasive measures which can be quantified quickly and repeatedly. 9 Saliva contains both immunity and stress biomarkers, including immunoglobulin A (IgA), alpha-amylase (AA), and cortisol, all of which have been shown

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

in saliva, serum (blood), and urine. Salivary cortisol has been found to be a marker of physiological stress and may provide an understanding of physiological response from training and matches in team sports. 7 – 10 Saliva collection is noninvasive, time efficient, and easy to collect, indicating

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Joshua Strahorn, Carmen Colomer, Andrew McKune, Christian Cook and Kate Pumpa

delivered in person by a respected former player of the club. A baseline saliva was collected prior to consuming any food or drink on day 1 and assayed for testosterone and cortisol for 2 reasons: first, this is recommended for this type of hormone research, 9 and second because, at this time point (5 days

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

-related exercise. Cortisol Awakening Response Prior to involvement in the study, subjects were given instructions for proper guidelines for saliva collection and were required to demonstrate proficiency of these techniques by actively demonstrating a simulated waking process and sample collection. Throughout the

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

commencement of the camp, or prior to commencement of each day, as to what the day ahead entailed, and it was assumed that there would be psychologically stressful elements, both in anticipation of and within the activities themselves. During the 4 days of training camp, participants provided a saliva sample