This study proposed and tested a theoretical explanation of how social class background influences sport participation. Two theoretical constructs of social class were operationalized within the context of sport participation and tested to determine how well they explained the social class-sport participation link: life chances/economic opportunity set (the distribution of material goods and services), and life-styles/social psychological opportunity set (values, beliefs, and practices). Life chances consisted of the availability and usage of sport equipment, facilities or club memberships, and instruction. Life-styles consisted of selected parental achievement and gender role expectations that encourage, fail to encourage, or discourage sport participation. Social class background was determined by father’s occupation as ranked in the Duncan Socioeconomic Index. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a stratified random sample of high school students, with some questionnaires eliminated to control for cultural and/or racial differences and variation in parental influence. The construct validity of the instrument was supported by factor analytic results. The test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was r = .956. Partial correlation analyses revealed that while individual life chances/economic opportunity set variables explained a greater portion of the relationship between sport participation and social class background than did the individual variables of life-styles/social psychological opportunity set, a combination of all three economic opportunity set variables and two social-psychological opportunity set variables accounted for more than 50% of the relationship between sport and class.
Cheryl Mallen, Julie Stevens and Lorne J. Adams
This study systematically examined the extent of environmental sustainability (ES) research within the sport-related journal sample of academic literature to identify areas of under-emphasis and recommend directions for future research. The data collection and analysis followed a content analysis framework. The investigation involved a total of 21 sport-related academic journals that included 4,639 peer-reviewed articles published from 1987 to 2008. Findings indicated a paucity of sport-ES research articles (n = 17) during this time period. Further analysis compared the sport-ES studies within the sample to research in the broader management literature. A research agenda is suggested to advance sport-ES beyond the infancy stage.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Leah E. Robinson
This commentary examines the argument for early sport specialization versus sport sampling from a physical growth and motor development perspective. Three developmental frameworks are examined (Mountain of Motor Development, Developmental Model of Sport Participation, Spirals of Engagement Trajectory model) to make the case that a broad base of fundamental motor skill competence is necessary in the early years before sport specialization in the adolescent years. Early sport specialization is criticized from the standpoint of increased risk for overuse injury, concerns about long-term growth, and the fact that early and intense practice schedules often do not differentiate elite versus nonelite athletes. A strong argument is made for early sport sampling to acquire a broad base of fundamental motor skills to apply to different sports, and to allow physical maturity to develop before specializing in sport. Such an approach also better equips a child to be active across the lifespan.
David I. Anderson and Anthony M. Mayo
This paper examines the costs and benefits of early specialization in sport from a skill acquisition perspective. The focus is on whether early specialization in a single sport is the best way to facilitate the acquisition of skill in that sport. The paper is organized relative to the two major conceptual frameworks that have motivated much of the discussion about early specialization in sport: the theory of deliberate practice and the Developmental Model of Sport Participation. Our analysis reveals that while early specialization in sport is one way to reach elite status, it is not the only way. Considerable evidence shows that many elite athletes specialized in their sport late, following diversified experiences with other sports. These findings raise a number of exciting questions about the long-term development of skill in sport.
Monica A. Kunesh, Cynthia A. Hasbrook and Rebecca Lewthwaite
Premised on an interactive socialization as construction and internalization approach, physical activity socialization experiences related to peer interactions and associated affective responses in physical activity settings were explored among eight 11- to 12-year-old girls. Three possible physical activity choices (formal sport, informal physical activity, and exercise) were considered. Three methods of data collection were employed: observation, sociometric evaluation, and interview. Physical activity socialization experiences were found to be context specific both in terms of activity type (formal sport, informal physical activity, and exercise) and social situation (home and school). Boys in physical education classes appeared to be the major source of negative peer treatment, primarily by criticizing girls’ physical skill performances and constructing them as subordinate to those of the boys. Positive or negative affective responses to peer treatment were reported to lead to the seeking or avoidance of future physical activity involvement. The type of attributions participants made for the negative treatment they received was related to their affective responses and subsequent desire to seek or avoid future activity.
Travis Anderson, Sandra J. Shultz, Nancy I. Williams, Ellen Casey, Zachary Kincaid, Jay L. Lieberman and Laurie Wideman
, the timing and magnitude of relaxin exposure may vary considerably among females and be difficult to detect with only one or two serum samples collected throughout a menstrual cycle. This variability may also help inform previously reported menstrual cycle phase differences in ACL injury risk (see
Susan Lagaert, Mieke Van Houtte and Henk Roose
, Corsaro, & Honig, 2009 ). Thirdly, many researchers use a qualitative approach or a small sample-based quantitative study on athletes or avid sport fans to look into the processes behind women’s disadvantaged position in the sports domain (e.g., Athenstaedt, Mikula, & Bredt, 2009 ; Dzikus, Smith
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut
sample. If Black women are holding themselves to a physique standard that is more approving of heavier and/or larger body types, while concurrently underestimating their weight, they could be unaware that they are at risk for negative health outcomes, even though they may be satisfied with their physical
Sarah J. Hatteberg
sample of Division I collegiate athletes in each of four different sports, this study adds to the existing body of research by exploring 1) how collegiate athletics might approximate a total institution, if at all, and 2) how athletes participating in different sports perceive their institutional
Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield
, & Dressler, 2006 ), rugby ( Bennet, Manning, Cook & Kilduff, 2010 ), male surfing ( Kilduff, Cook, & Manning, 2011 ), and American football ( Schorer, Reinhoff, Westphal, & Baker, 2013 ). Similar findings have been shown with female samples (e.g., Hull, Schranz, Manning and Tomkinson [ 2015] found that