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Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers

Based on the self-determination theory, this study investigated the mediating role of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (need for competence, relatedness and autonomy) in the relation between need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and autonomous motivation to engage in PE and between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation to engage in PE. Data were collected from 2418 6th grade children. Analyses were performed using bootstrapping. The results showed that perceptions of competence and autonomy mediated the relation between need support from the PE teacher and autonomous motivation. Moreover, the perception of autonomy also mediated the relation between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation. These findings suggest that not only the PE teacher but also the physical school environment is able to promote autonomous motivation by satisfying the need for autonomy.

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Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, Nathalie Vissers and Jan Seghers

Based on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study tested whether changes in autonomous motivation toward physical education (AMPE) during the transition from elementary to secondary school can be predicted by changes in perceived need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and perceived physical school environment. Self-reported data were gathered from 472 Flemish (northern part of Belgium) students in 6th grade (2009) and again in 8th grade (2011). Mediation analyses showed that an increase in perceived need support from the PE teacher was related to an increase in AMPE (boys: β = .42; girls: β = .50). In boys, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived competence (β = .08). In girls, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived autonomy (β = .12), perceived competence (β = .14), and perceived relatedness (β = .05). This study shows that PE teachers should be need-supportive to maintain a good quality of motivation in students.

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Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones and Richard J. Keegan

Introduction: Despite increases in research and implementation, physical literacy continues to be largely misinterpreted by practitioners. The purpose of this study was to devise, implement, and evaluate a professional development program that works in a primary school environment to enhance their knowledge and operationalization of physical literacy. Methods: Following a 3-month needs assessment phase, data were collected from structured observations, reflections, and semistructured interviews with the teachers, before, during, and after an introductory workshop and 6-month physical literacy intervention. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate perceptions of program effectiveness. Results: The needs assessment phase identified notable differences between teachers’ classroom and physical education practice. Results of the physical literacy workshop and intervention detailed an increase in teachers’ knowledge of, and operationalization of, physical literacy. Discussion/Conclusions: Applying established principles of effective professional development in a contextually sensitive manner was viewed as effective in enhancing primary school teachers’ knowledge and practice regarding physical literacy.

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Sarah A. Doolittle, Paul B. Rukavina, Weidong Li, Mara Manson and Angela Beale

Using the Social Ecological Constraints model, a qualitative multiple case study design was used to explore experienced and committed middle school physical education teachers’ perspectives on overweight and obese students (OWS), and how and why they acted to include OWS in physical education and physical activity opportunities in their school environments. Three themes emerged. 1) OWS are “the same, but different.” Teachers attempted to treat all students the same, but perceived variations among OWS’ participation in PE and related individual constraints. 2) Teachers’ concerns lead to individual goals and specific actions. Teachers identified specific goals and approaches to help individual OWS who needed extra attention. 3) OWS are a responsibility and challenge. Many of these teachers felt a responsibility to devote extra time and effort to help struggling OWS to succeed. These teachers avoided obesity bias, and exhibited beliefs and actions similar to a caring perspective.

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Joannie Halas

This paper presents a case study of a physical education program for troubled youth attending an adolescent treatment center. The site selected for study was deliberately chosen due to the alternative nature of the physical education program and its apparent success in helping to connect students to their school environment. The researcher, as bricoleur, used a variety of methodological tools and strategies to collect data that corresponded to the study’s entry question: How does the physical education program work? Constructed from the data is the story of a gymnasium culture that has been carefully crafted to promote physically and psychologically safe participation that is fair and flexible, where students are encouraged to play just for fun, and a lack of competence is positioned as an opportunity to learn. By incorporating the theoretical framework of the “Circle of Courage” (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 1998) into the data analysis, this paper is intended to show how physical education can provide a reclaiming versus alienating learning environment for young people.

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Jihoun An and Samuel R. Hodge

The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to explore the experiences and meaning of parental involvement in physical education from the perspectives of the parents of students with developmental disabilities. The stories of four mothers of elementary aged children (3 boys, 1 girl), two mothers and one couple (mother and father) of secondary-aged youth (1 girl, 2 boys) with developmental disabilities, were gathered by using interviews, photographs, school documents, and the researcher’s journal. Bronfenbrenner’s (2005) ecological system theory provided a conceptual framework to interpret the findings of this inquiry. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis: being an advocate for my child, understanding the big picture, and collaborative partnerships undeveloped in GPE. The findings lend additional support to the need for establishing collaborative partnerships in physical education between home and school environments (An & Goodwin, 2007; Tekin, 2011).

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Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards and Jesse L. Rhoades

were predominantly European American ( Woods et al., 1997 ), middle-aged ( Goc Karp et al., 1996 ; Metzler & Freedman, 1985 ), and had taught physical education in school environments prior to transitioning into higher education ( Woods et al., 1997 ). Metzler and Freedman’s ( 1985 ) seminal

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Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler and Naiman A. Khan

). Physical education is deemed the most important component of a CSPAP; however, little is known regarding how physical educators conduct their lessons within a school environment that has been recognized for health and wellness. Recent guidelines from the Institutes of Medicine recommend that at least 50

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Jenna R. Starck, K. Andrew R. Richards, Michael A. Lawson and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

relates to experiences that attract recruits into physical education ( Lawson, 1983 ). Prior to entering physical education teacher education (PETE), recruits develop subjective theories ( Grotjahn, 1991 ) based on their apprenticeship of observation ( Lortie, 1975 ) as children in school environments

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Collin A. Webster, Diana Mîndrilă, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff and Sally Taunton

the school environment is not new, and multicomponent approaches existed long before the introduction of the CSPAP model ( Kelder, Goc Karp, Scruggs, & Brown, 2014 ). Nevertheless, the conceptualization of a CSPAP reified the various notions and iterations of school-based PA and provided potential