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Ang Chen

School is an environment where children and adolescents spend most of their time during the day. The environment is characterized by a sedentary culture necessary for academic learning. In this article, I present research evidence showing the effects of four physical activity opportunities in this environment: school athletics, recess, classroom physical activity breaks, and physical education. Based on an analysis of research evidence on the four opportunities, I propose that the efforts to promote the opportunities should be coordinated into a concerted action to integrate a physical activity-friendly culture in the sedentary environment. Using an example of China's whole-school physical activity promotion strategy, I identify four areas for us to continue to work on: legislature-based policies, physical education as core content, creation and maintenance of physical activity traditions in schools, and integration of physical activity-friendly culture into the sedentary school environment.

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Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder and Amelia Mays Woods

; Thornburg & Hill, 2004 ) and three others occurred solely in secondary school environments that spanned across what could be considered middle school and high school contexts ( Kooiman & Sheehan, 2015 ; Kooiman et al., 2016 ; Osterlie, 2018 ). Another study took place in a sixth-grade setting in an

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John B. Bartholomew

Numerous interventions have been designed to modify children's physical activity and eating behaviors. While early research centered on the individual as the target of intervention, more recent work targets change in the environment. These studies have consistently supported the importance of environmental contributors to both physical activity and eating behavior, but little research has considered those who are responsible for implementing environmental change. For example, if we expect school environments to support activity and healthy eating, we must consider the motivation of school administrators to affect change. This review will present examples of an ecological approach to behavior change along with recent data to support this approach.

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Adam J. White, Stefan Robinson, Eric Anderson, Rachael Bullingham, Allyson Pollock and Ryan Scoats

environment in England. It is important to recognize that many rugby participants (which are often not recorded in RFU participation data) come from the school environment through curricular and extra-curricular rugby. This constituent body has its own structure of organization, somewhat similar to that of

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

organizational structures to implement this proposed intervention, supported by professionals ( Murillo Pardo et al., 2015 ). Therefore, school and community-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment, policy, and community links, are a

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Shara Crookston

context of their school environment” ( Felton et al., 2005 p. 58), such as self-defense, kickboxing, aerobics, and dance classes. Community members were invited to teach classes in their area of expertise. Girls spent time developing personal goals, time management skills, and ways to incorporate

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Marianne I. Clark and Holly Thorpe

. PubMed ID: 31484075 doi: 10.1177/1532708616634726 Taguchi , H.L. , & Palmer , A. ( 2013 ). A more ‘livable’ school? A diffractive analysis of the performative enactments of girls’ ill-/well-being with(in) school environments . Gender and Education, 25, 671 – 687 . doi: 10

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Debra J. Rose

Theory” examined specific physical activity contexts (i.e., physical education and other leisure-time activity programs) within the broader school environment and how the implementation of physical activity policies, whether formulated at a regional, state, or federal level, can determine how well

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Rebecca E. Hasson

child has with his or her immediate surroundings such as home and school environments. In the home environment, parent physical activity, household rules around outdoor play, and access to media and physical activity equipment can influence a child’s physical activity and sedentary behaviors ( Jago et

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Colin G. Pennington and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

school environments through discussions of sociopolitical challenges they may face, such as marginalization and isolation. Strategies such as case-based learning, critical-incident reflection, and group discussion may help develop this awareness ( Richards, Housner, & Templin, 2018 ). In addition to