Low aerobic fitness and high adiposity are associated with increased cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk ( 2 , 12 , 13 , 23 , 33 , 35 , 36 , 48 ). Thus, aerobic fitness testing of schoolchildren is of paramount importance for determining and modifying unfavorable cardiovascular and metabolic
Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas, Peter Krustrup, Carlo Castagna, Pedro Miguel Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Rita Liliana Mendes Pereira and Malte Nejst Larsen
Mónica López-Vicente, Joan Forns, Mikel Esnaola, Elisabet Suades-González, Mar Álvarez-Pedrerol, Oliver Robinson, Jordi Júlvez, Judith Garcia-Aymerich and Jordi Sunyer
The evidence regarding the role of physical activity (PA) habits on cognitive development in children is still scarce. Our study aimed to assess the association between PA habits and cognitive growth patterns, including working memory (WM) and inattentiveness in a large sample of primary schoolchildren.
This study included 2,897 children between 7 and 10 years old. WM was measured using the n-back task (2- and 3-back) and inattentiveness was measured using the attentional network task (ANT) on four occasions during one year. Parents completed a questionnaire with data about the extracurricular exercise of their child, commuting to school and other sociodemographic information at the first visit.
Exercising twice per week or more was associated with better 2-back, 3-back and inattentiveness scores at baseline, as compared with the once per week or less category. Active commuting for more than 50 min was associated with better 3-back scores at baseline, as compared with passive commuting. No consistent associations were found between PA and cognitive growth.
Overall, although children with high levels of PA performed better in cognitive tasks at baseline, PA levels had no clear effects on cognitive growth trajectories.
Amanda Santos, Sandra Silva-Santos, Michael Duncan, Maria João Lagoa, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota
the effect of ST on health in pediatric populations. Indeed, few studies have considered the changes in ST over time along with the associations with change in physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in schoolchildren ( 37 ). Many changes in PA habits, body composition, and health outcomes
Christine Voss and Gavin R. H. Sandercock
Parental behavior is an important correlate of child health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived parental physical activity (PA) and schoolchildren’s aerobic fitness.
English schoolchildren’s (n = 4029, 54% boys, 10.0−15.9 yrs) fitness was assessed by 20 m shuttle run test and categorized using criterion-referenced standards. Parental PA was reported by the child.
Boys and girls were more likely to be fit (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1−1.8; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1−2.0; respectively) if at least 1 parent was perceived as active compared with when neither parents were. Girls were even more likely to be fit (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2−2.8) if both parents were active. Associations between parental PA and child fitness were generally stronger when parent and child were of the same gender, although girls with active fathers were more likely (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.7−3.7) to be fit compared with inactive fathers.
Schoolchildren perceiving at least 1 parent as active are more likely to meet health-related fitness standards. Underlying mechanisms remain elusive, but same-gender associations suggest that social rather than genetic factors are of greater importance. Targeting parental PA or at least perceptions of parental PA should be given consideration in interventions aiming to improve child health.
Ana C. Seabra, José Maia, André F. Seabra, Greg Welk, Robert Brustad and António M. Fonseca
The Youth Physical Activity Promotion (YPAP) model provides an integrated approach to understanding the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors influencing physical activity (PA) behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adapted version of the YPAP model for explaining PA among Portuguese schoolchildren.
A random cross-sectional sample of 683 children (8–10 years of age) attending elementary public schools in the north of Portugal completed a detailed survey assessing attraction to PA, perceived physical competence, parental influences and leisure time PA. Structural equation modeling techniques were conducted (EQS6.1).
Attraction to PA was directly associated with children’s PA participation (β = 0.271, P < .05). Perceived physical competence imposed an indirect effect on children’s PA through children’s attraction to PA (β = 0.253, P < .05). Parental influence had an indirect effect on children’s PA through perceived physical competence and attraction to PA (β = 0.318 and 0.662, respectively, P < .05). Perceived physical competence and parental influence were not directly associated with children’s PA (β = 0.069 and 0.180, respectively, P > .05).
The adapted version of YPAP model was useful in explaining PA participation in elementary Portuguese schoolchildren. Intervention programs intended to enhance attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and favorable parental influence should be developed to promote children’s PA participation.
Maarike Sallo and Raiot Silla
The purpose of this investigation was to study the pattern of habitual physical activity (HPA) and to assess the time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in kindergarten and first-grade schoolchildren. In 54 children, HPA was studied during 4 consecutive days by whole-day heart rate (HR) monitoring. MVPA was defined on the basis of HR threshold above 139 beats per minute. Sustained periods of MVPA of 20 or more minutes were observed only in 20% of boys and 17% of girls. However, the pattern of HPA of all children contained 1-min, and 2- to 4-min periods of MVPA, and 80% of boys and 90% of girls had 5- to 9-min sustained periods of MVPA. It can be concluded that in 4- to 8-year-old children, HPA is characterized by an intermittent pattern without prolonged periods of MVPA.
Chris Riddoch, Craig Mahoney, Niamh Murphy, Colin Boreham and Gordon Cran
The aim of this study was to provide objective data on the cardiopulmonary fitness and physical activity patterns of Northern Irish postprimary schoolchildren. Forty-five children (23 boys, 22 girls), ages 11-16 years, took part in this study. Each child performed a laboratory test of peak aerobic power (PVO2) and had his/her heart rate monitored for up to 4 school days. The mean values of PVO2 in both boys and girls were in keeping with previous literature. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of total activity (>50% PVO2), but boys engaged in significantly more vigorous activity (>70% PVO2 than girls did (p<0.05). Younger boys engaged in significantly more vigorous activity than both older boys (p<0.01) and younger girls (p<0.05). A significant negative correlation was found between age and total activity for boys (r= −0.476, p<0.05), but not for girls (r= -0.173, n.s.). The surprisingly low levels of physical activity on the part of older children of both sexes are a cause for concern.
Sarah A. Amin, Paula J. Duquesnay, Catherine M. Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D. Economos and Jennifer M. Sacheck
.0000000000000724 18. Holt NL . Positive Youth Development Through Sport . London, UK : Routledge ; 2016 . 10.4324/9781315709499 19. Hubbard K , Economos CD , Bakun P , et al . Disparities in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among girls and overweight and obese schoolchildren during school
Jim Dollman, Tim Olds, Kevin Norton and David Stuart
There is evidence that fitness has been declining and fatness increasing in Australian schoolchildren over the last generation. This study reproduced the methods of a national survey of Australian schoolchildren conducted in 1985. Anthropometric and performance tests were administered to 1,463 10- and ll-year-old South Australians. Compared to the 1985 sample, the 1997 children were heavier (by 1.4−2.9 kg), showed greater weight for height (by 0.13−0.30 kg · m−2.85), and were slower over 1.6 km (by 38−48.5 s). Furthermore, the distribution of values was markedly more skewed in the 1997 data. While there was little difference between the fittest and leanest quartiles in 1997 and their 1985 counterparts, the least fit and fattest quartiles were markedly worse in 1997. This suggests that the decline in fitness of Australian schoolchildren is not homogeneous and that interventions should target groups where the decline is most marked.
Jayne Henaghan, Nicola McWhannell, Lawrence Foweather, N. Tim Cable, Alan M. Batterham, Gareth Stratton and Keith P. George
This exploratory trial evaluates the effect of a structured exercise (STEX) or lifestyle intervention (PASS) program upon cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors in children. Sixty-one schoolchildren were randomly assigned by school to an intervention or control (CON) condition. The effect of the STEX (compared with CON) was a mean benefit of −0.018 mm for average maximum carotid intimamedia thickness. The PASS intervention did not result in clinically important effects, and no other substantial changes were observed. Relatively high probability of clinically beneficial effects of the STEX intervention suggests that a larger, definitive randomized trial with longer follow-up is warranted.