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Robert F. Potter and Justin Robert Keene

An experiment investigates the impact of fan identification on the cognitive and emotional processing of sports-related news media. Two coaches were featured; one conceptualized as negatively valenced the other positively. Participants completed a fan identification scale before stimuli presentation. While watching the press conferences, heart rate, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle activity were recorded as indices of cognitive resource allocation, emotional arousal, and aversive motivation activation respectively. Self-report measures were collected after each stimulus. Results show that highly identified fans process sports-related news content differently than moderate fans, allocating more cognitive resources and exhibiting greater aversive reactions to the negatively valenced coach. Comparisons between the self-report and psychophysiology data suggest that the latter may be less susceptible to social desirability response bias when emotional reaction to sports messages are concerned.

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Masayuki Yoshida, Bob Heere and Brian Gordon

A consumer’s loyalty to a specific sport team is longitudinal in nature. This longitudinal study examines the effects of consumers’ attitudinal constructs (team identification, associated attachment points, consumer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions) on behavioral loyalty in the context of a professional soccer event. To test the proposed relationships, the authors assess the impact of consumers’ self-reported measures (Time 1) on actual attendance frequency in the first half (Time 2) and the second half (Time 3) of the season. The results indicate that fan community attachment is the only construct that can predict attendance frequency over a longer period of time while team identification, satisfaction and behavioral intentions are not significant predictors of attendance frequency throughout the season. The theoretical model and results reinforce the importance of fan community attachment toward longitudinal attendance frequency and add new insights into the predictive validity of some of the attitudinal marketing measures in the field of sport management.

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Ben Larkin, Brendan Dwyer and Chad Goebert

association is used to investigate the topic of dehumanization is because it is a taboo subject wherein people may suppress their true feelings on a self-report measure ( Martinez et al., 2014 ). Interestingly enough, the participants in the current study willingly admitted feelings of dehumanization toward

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Brian M. Mills, Scott Tainsky, B. Christine Green and Becca Leopkey

event logistics. Unlike most sport marketing research, this study gets beyond self-report measures to determine fans’ behaviors toward rival fans. As the initial utilization of behavioral economics tools, the results of this study can serve as a basis for consideration of the relative willingness of one

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

classic decision-making literature using MTurk respondents. Nevertheless, there are some limitations to the platform. In addition, although team identification has long been measured with a parsimonious unidimensional self-report measure, scholars have recently called for a more complex multidimensional

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Ted Hayduk III and Matt Walker

important to show when commercialization of social messages can have a pejorative influence on organizational communications. In line with this, the self-report measure of social consciousness used here has certain drawbacks, as well. While much scholarship has advocated for the use of our measure expressly

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Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer and Stephen L. Shapiro

intrinsically motivated participants; however, the extrinsic group indicated superior outcomes despite spending the least amount of time and money on research (even compared with the less motivated participant), which contradicts both theory and logic. In this case, it may be worth interpreting this self-reported

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Per G. Svensson, Fredrik O. Andersson and Lewis Faulk

-response bias issues as different individuals within the same organization may judge capacity levels differently. Third, the use of self-reported measures of capacity is also a limitation of this study. Future studies should consider the use of both subjective and objective measures of capacity. This study

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Pamela Wicker and Paul Downward

research relying on survey data has captured subjective well-being with self-reported measures for individual life satisfaction (e.g.,  Becchetti, Pelloni, & Rossetti, 2008 ) or happiness (e.g.,  Downward & Dawson, 2016 ). In previous studies, various factors, including volunteering, have been found to be