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Thomas Horky, Marianna Baranovskaa, Christoph G. Grimmer, Honorata Jakubowska and Barbara Stelzner

ours” (p. 66). Also related to basketball, Billings et al. ( 2009 ) did a qualitative text analysis of a match telecast in four different countries during the 2008 Olympics based on self-categorization theory with dichotomies like us/them or I/they. Aside from the different structure of the telecasts

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Akira Asada, Yong Jae Ko and Wonseok (Eric) Jang

and self-categorization theory ( Hornsey, 2008 ). The social identity approach assumes that part of individuals’ sense of self is derived from their membership in a social group (i.e., social identity; Tajfel, 2010 ). At any given time, a certain social identity becomes salient, and people categorize

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Andrew C. Billings, Paul J. MacArthur, Simon Licen and Dan Wu

Media renderings of the Olympics continue to offer opportunities for hypernationalism. This study analyzes the same basketball game (U.S. vs. China in men’s basketball at the 2008 Summer Olympics) through the lens of 4 different telecasts in the United States, China, Slovenia, and Canada. Results illuminate us/them and collectivist/individualist dichotomies, differing themes of redemption and expectation, and stark contrasts in network style and content in game coverage. Ramifications for theory, fans, and network gatekeepers are postulated.

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Zachary W. Arth, Darrin J. Griffin and Andrew C. Billings

in terms of the players themselves. The interest here is in descriptions of American and non-American players (with a largely American audience on the receiving end) and thus it is important to consider self-categorization theory ( Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987 ). Self-categorization

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John S.W. Spinda

This study explored first-, second-, and third-person effects related to the outcome of televised National Football League (NFL) games among an online sample of NFL fans (N = 646). Overall findings indicated that first-person and second-person perceptual biases were projected toward comparison groups that were labeled as fans of other NFL teams or as the average person. In addition, support was found for both first and second-person behavioral effects in the form of postgame Basking In Reflected Glory (BIRGing) and Cutting Off Reflected Failure (CORFing) behaviors. However, the strength of NFL fans’ team identification was a more robust predictor of these effects than NFL fans self-reported BIRGing/CORFing behaviors. These findings support the hypothesis that self-enhancement processes (i.e., BIRGing/CORFing) are usurped by self-categorization processes when a social identity is made salient (i.e., NFL team identification). Areas of future research and limitations are also addressed.

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Lindsey J. Meân and Jeffrey W. Kassing

The purpose of this study was to examine identity and spectator/fan communication at youth sporting events. Data were collected through naturalistic observation of 44 youth sporting events. The median age range of the athletes was 6–11 years. Critical discourse analysis revealed the enactment of overlapping and conflicting identities (sports fan/spectator, coach, and parent) and the re/production of the ideology of winning (at all costs) and aggressive competition, rather than participation, support, and “unconditional” encouragement. In particular, the enactment or performance of sports identities, including identification with athletes, was observed to overlap with the enactment of parental identities and identification with children in ways that suggested that the salient issue was enhancement of parent self-categorization as sports spectator/fan, coach, and parent of a great athlete through the success of the child-athlete. That is, talk and identity performance were less about the children and more about parents’ identities.

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Isabell Mills

regarding the acceptability of the Washington Redskins. These results illuminate two differing perspectives: a need for change and the status quo. Before Native American mascots are deconstructed, self-categorization is employed as a theoretical background to frame the overall discussion surrounding mascots

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Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko

, which usually refers to social identity theory and self-categorization theory ( Hornsey, 2008 ). The social identity approach assumes that part of an individual’s sense of self is derived from his or her membership in a social group such as gender, race, nationality, and occupation (i

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Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III and Hui Du

( 1985 ) proposed self-categorization theory to further understand how group membership influences the behaviors of individual members. Along with social identity, self-categorization theory yielded the social identity approach. Self-categorization involves individuals assimilating their self-concept as

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Matthew Katz, Aaron C. Mansfield and B. David Tyler

social identity approach expands on social identity theory to also include self-categorization theory ( Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987 ). Self-categorization details how the group memberships central to social identity theory produce prototype-based depersonalization, whereby group