The purposes of this investigation were first to predict reported PA (physical activity) behavior and self-esteem using a multidimensional physical self-concept model and second to describe perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (e.g., strength, endurance, sport competence) among athletes with physical disabilities. Athletes (N = 36, M age = 16.11, SD age = 2.8) completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. Participants reported mostly positive perceptions of self-esteem, global physical self-concept, endurance, body fat, sport competence, strength, flexibility, and physical activity (Ms ranging from 3.9 to 5.6 out of 6). Correlations indicated a number of significant relationships among self-esteem and reported PA and various dimensions of physical self-concept. Using physical self-concept, strength, endurance, and flexibility in the first regression equation and sport competence and endurance simultaneously in the second equation, 47 and 31% of the variance was accounted for in self-esteem and reported PA, respectively. The findings support the value of examining multidimensional physical self-concept as different aspects of the physical self appear to have different influences on reported PA engagement versus self-esteem.
Deborah R. Shapiro and Jeffrey J. Martin
Diane H. Craft and Patricia I. Hogan
Humanistic goals related to the affective domain have been of considerable influence in the justification of mainstreaming. Physical educators have traditionally identified development in this domain as a salient educational outcome of physical activity and of physical education programs. Concerning handicapped children in regular physical education programs, the benefits related to development in the affective domain have been espoused and projected to be significant. However, development in the affective domain (especially as related to self-concept and self-efficacy) does not occur incidentally, but must be planned for. This article elaborates on the constructs of self-concept and self-efficacy and discusses the implications for developing or enhancing these constructs in mainstreamed handicapped children.
Theresa C. Brown and Mary D. Fry
This study examined the relationship between college students’ perceptions of the motivational climate (i.e., caring, task- and ego-involving) in physical activity courses to their physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. Midwestern university undergraduates (N = 412), enrolled in group physical activity classes, completed the following measures: class climate, physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that students who perceived a caring, task-involving climate were more likely to report high physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. A gender comparison found that while perceptions of the ego-involving climate were significantly higher for males, the ego climate did not significantly contribute to the males’ canonical correlation. In addition, while physical self-concept was positively associated with climate for both genders, males were more likely to experience higher physical self-concept than females. Results suggest positive and supportive exercise environments may not only help individuals reap the physical benefits of exercise but also the psychological benefits.
Virginia Politino and Sarah L. Smith
This study investigated the relationship between attitude toward physical activity and self-concept of emotionally disturbed and normal children. The subjects were 470 boys and girls, ranging from 8 to 13 years of age (M = 10.95, SD = 1.91). The sample included 80 emotionally disturbed children from two psychiatric hospitals in Ohio and 390 normal children from a parochial school in Ohio. Data were collected through the Children’s Attitude Toward Physical Activity Inventory (CATPA) and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. A significant difference on CATPA occurred between emotionally disturbed and normal children and between boys and girls. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in self-concept between emotionally disturbed and normal children. The Pearson product-moment correlation revealed low but significant relationships between self-concept and the following subscales of the CATPA: social experience, thrill, and release of tension. The results indicated that normal children had a more positive attitude toward physical activity and self-concept than emotionally disturbed children.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Jennifer J. Waldron, Andria McCabe and Yun Seok Choi
The purpose of our quasi-experimental study was to examine the impact of the Girls on the Run (GOTR) program on multidimensional self-concept and attitudes toward fat. Young girls (N= 21) participated in a 12-week running program designed to increase their running ability, self-esteem, and, in general, their emotional, social, and mental well-being. It was hypothesized that girls would experience favorable changes in their global self-esteem, appearance, peer, physical, and running self-concepts and their attitudes toward fat. The overall RM-ANOVA examining for pre to post differences was significant, F(13, 8) = 26.46, p < .001, η2 = .977, and follow-up within subjects contrasts revealed three significant differences: Physical, F(1, 20) = 6.24, p < .02, η2 = .24, and running self-concept, F(1, 20) = 11.18, p< .003, η2 = .36, as well as fear of fat, F(1, 20) = 4.37, p < .049, η2 = .18, were all significant with meaningful effect sizes. These findings provided preliminary support for the major goal of the GOTR program, enhancing physical and running self-concept with some support for secondary gains in nonphysical ability areas (i.e., reductions in fear of fat).
This pilot study examined self-concept and motor performance of hearing impaired boys and girls, ages 10 to 14. Subjects were 32 students from the Washington State School for the Deaf in Vancouver. Self-concept was measured using the Harter Self-Perception Profile consisting of six subscales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth. Motor performance was assessed with the 9-min run, sit-ups, sit and reach, Bass stick test, long jump, shuttle run, and catching a ball. Results of this pilot study indicated that students scored highest in the scholastic domain and lowest in the social acceptance domain. The physical appearance scale was most related to global self-worth. Those students who viewed themselves as athletically capable did best in the 9-min run. Girls scored higher than boys in athletic competence, physical appearance, and social acceptance domains.
Jennifer Wright and Jo E. Cowden
Although It has been said that Special Olympics competition contributes significantly to the physical fitness and self-concept of mentally retarded participants, no experimental research has been reported on the Special Olympics program. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in self-concept and cardiovascular endurance of mentally retarded youths after participating in a Special Olympics swim training program. One group (N = 25) participated in a 10-week Special Olympics swim training program, while the control group (N = 25) adhered to their normal daily living activities. The 9-Minute Run/Walk test yielded the data for measuring cardiovascular endurance, and the Piers and Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale was selected to measure self-concept. Results of the analysis of variance for each test were significant. It was concluded from the findings of this study that participation of mentally retarded youth in a Special Olympics swim training program contributed to a significant increase in self-concept and cardiovascular endurance.
Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes
even to their totality of their self-concept and to broader domains in life ( Watkins, 2008 ). However, why is it that some athletes easily generalize from a particular performance to future performances and their self-worth whereas other athletes might fail but do not generalize this failure to future
Christophe Maïano, Grégory Ninot, Alexandre J.S. Morin and Jean Bilard
The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB), and (c) control—adapted physical activity (APA). The basketball skills tests and physical self-concept were both administrated 4 times over an 18-month period. Results indicated (a) an improvement in basketball skills in both competitive groups (i.e., ISBB, IEBB), (b) a significant curvilinear trend of physical self-worth scale in the three groups, and (c) no significant changes in physical self-concept in the three groups (i.e., ISBB, IEBB, and APA). In conclusion, the integrated and segregated competitive programs did not represent an effective means for improving the physical self-concept of adolescents with CD.
Dale A. Ulrich and Douglas H. Collier
Self-perceptions of competence are thought to mediate a person’s motivation to participate and persist in tasks under optimally challenging conditions. Little systematic research has been conducted related to the self-perceptions of physical competence in children with mental retardation and the influence on achievement motivation in this domain. Various models of self-concept are reviewed, followed by a discussion of self-concept and special populations. Preliminary data are presented on a modified pictorial scale of perceived physical competence for use with 7- to 12-year-old students with mild mental retardation. Future research directions are proposed related to achievement motivation, perceived competence, and mental retardation.