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Deborah R. Shapiro and Jeffrey J. Martin

The purposes of this investigation were first to predict reported PA (physical activity) behavior and self-esteem using a multidimensional physical self-concept model and second to describe perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (e.g., strength, endurance, sport competence) among athletes with physical disabilities. Athletes (N = 36, M age = 16.11, SD age = 2.8) completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. Participants reported mostly positive perceptions of self-esteem, global physical self-concept, endurance, body fat, sport competence, strength, flexibility, and physical activity (Ms ranging from 3.9 to 5.6 out of 6). Correlations indicated a number of significant relationships among self-esteem and reported PA and various dimensions of physical self-concept. Using physical self-concept, strength, endurance, and flexibility in the first regression equation and sport competence and endurance simultaneously in the second equation, 47 and 31% of the variance was accounted for in self-esteem and reported PA, respectively. The findings support the value of examining multidimensional physical self-concept as different aspects of the physical self appear to have different influences on reported PA engagement versus self-esteem.

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Emily Kristin Beasley and Alex C. Garn

This study examined the relationships among identified regulation, physical self-concept, global self-concept, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle and high school girls (N = 319) enrolled in physical education. Based on Marsh’s theory of self-concept, it was hypothesized that a) physical self-concept would mediate the relationship between identified regulation and global self-concept and b) physical self-concept would mediate the relationship between identified regulation and leisure-time physical activity. Data analysis revealed a structural model in which physical self-concept mediated the relationship between identified regulation and global self-concept as well as the relationship between identified regulation and leisure-time physical activity. Findings provide support for examining self-concept from a hierarchical and domain-specific perspective. Results also offer greater understanding about one possible mechanism that links physical education to increases in global self-concept and leisure-time physical activity, which are considered important outcomes of quality education.

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Diane H. Craft and Patricia I. Hogan

Humanistic goals related to the affective domain have been of considerable influence in the justification of mainstreaming. Physical educators have traditionally identified development in this domain as a salient educational outcome of physical activity and of physical education programs. Concerning handicapped children in regular physical education programs, the benefits related to development in the affective domain have been espoused and projected to be significant. However, development in the affective domain (especially as related to self-concept and self-efficacy) does not occur incidentally, but must be planned for. This article elaborates on the constructs of self-concept and self-efficacy and discusses the implications for developing or enhancing these constructs in mainstreamed handicapped children.

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Jeffrey Gehris, Jeff Kress and Ricky Swalm

This study investigated 10th-grade students’ views concerning the physical effects of an adventure-physical education curriculum and the potential of such a curriculum to enhance components of a multidimensional model of physical self-concept. Semistructured interviews were used to obtain students’ views and participant observations were conducted to corroborate those views. Open coding was used to analyze the data. Students viewed adventure activities as an alternative way to be physically active that was more fun and motivating than traditional forms of exercise. Students expressed how the adventure activities helped them build strength and endurance particularly in their arms and legs. Students felt seven components (body fat, coordination, endurance/fitness, flexibility, physical activity, sports competence, and strength) of physical self-concept were relevant to adventure-physical education and two components (appearance and health) were not. Implications for designing activities and employing teaching strategies to enhance the physical self-concept and fitness of young people are discussed.

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Virginia Politino and Sarah L. Smith

This study investigated the relationship between attitude toward physical activity and self-concept of emotionally disturbed and normal children. The subjects were 470 boys and girls, ranging from 8 to 13 years of age (M = 10.95, SD = 1.91). The sample included 80 emotionally disturbed children from two psychiatric hospitals in Ohio and 390 normal children from a parochial school in Ohio. Data were collected through the Children’s Attitude Toward Physical Activity Inventory (CATPA) and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. A significant difference on CATPA occurred between emotionally disturbed and normal children and between boys and girls. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in self-concept between emotionally disturbed and normal children. The Pearson product-moment correlation revealed low but significant relationships between self-concept and the following subscales of the CATPA: social experience, thrill, and release of tension. The results indicated that normal children had a more positive attitude toward physical activity and self-concept than emotionally disturbed children.

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Chris Hopper

This pilot study examined self-concept and motor performance of hearing impaired boys and girls, ages 10 to 14. Subjects were 32 students from the Washington State School for the Deaf in Vancouver. Self-concept was measured using the Harter Self-Perception Profile consisting of six subscales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth. Motor performance was assessed with the 9-min run, sit-ups, sit and reach, Bass stick test, long jump, shuttle run, and catching a ball. Results of this pilot study indicated that students scored highest in the scholastic domain and lowest in the social acceptance domain. The physical appearance scale was most related to global self-worth. Those students who viewed themselves as athletically capable did best in the 9-min run. Girls scored higher than boys in athletic competence, physical appearance, and social acceptance domains.

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Jennifer Wright and Jo E. Cowden

Although It has been said that Special Olympics competition contributes significantly to the physical fitness and self-concept of mentally retarded participants, no experimental research has been reported on the Special Olympics program. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in self-concept and cardiovascular endurance of mentally retarded youths after participating in a Special Olympics swim training program. One group (N = 25) participated in a 10-week Special Olympics swim training program, while the control group (N = 25) adhered to their normal daily living activities. The 9-Minute Run/Walk test yielded the data for measuring cardiovascular endurance, and the Piers and Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale was selected to measure self-concept. Results of the analysis of variance for each test were significant. It was concluded from the findings of this study that participation of mentally retarded youth in a Special Olympics swim training program contributed to a significant increase in self-concept and cardiovascular endurance.

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Ali Brian, An De Meester, Aija Klavina, J. Megan Irwin, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Lauren J. Lieberman

Physical literacy refers to the confidence, competence, motivation, knowledge, and understanding to value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activities throughout the lifespan. Little is known regarding the physical literacy of children/adolescents with visual impairments (VIs). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of autonomous motivation in children/adolescents with VI (N = 41) from Latvia and the United States. A secondary aim was to explore differential effects of the country regarding all variables of interest. Methods: Within this preliminary investigation, levels of perceived motor competence, competence satisfaction, and autonomous motivation were captured in children/adolescents with VI located in Latvia and the United States. Results: Competence satisfaction and perceived motor competence significantly predicted autonomous motivation regardless of location. Significant differences regarding country occurred for competence satisfaction and autonomous motivation. Discussion/Conclusion: Implications for cultivating physical literacy for children/adolescents with VI involve strategies for physical educators focusing on fostering motivation.

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Christophe Maïano, Grégory Ninot, Alexandre J.S. Morin and Jean Bilard

The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB), and (c) control—adapted physical activity (APA). The basketball skills tests and physical self-concept were both administrated 4 times over an 18-month period. Results indicated (a) an improvement in basketball skills in both competitive groups (i.e., ISBB, IEBB), (b) a significant curvilinear trend of physical self-worth scale in the three groups, and (c) no significant changes in physical self-concept in the three groups (i.e., ISBB, IEBB, and APA). In conclusion, the integrated and segregated competitive programs did not represent an effective means for improving the physical self-concept of adolescents with CD.