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Amber D. Mosewich, Peter R.E. Crocker, Kent C. Kowalski and Anita DeLongis

This study investigated the effects of a self-compassion intervention on negative cognitive states and selfcompassion in varsity women athletes. Athletes who self-identified as being self-critical were randomly assigned to a self-compassion intervention (n = 29) or attention control group (n = 22). The self-compassion intervention consisted of a psychoeducation session and writing components completed over a 7-day period. Measures of self-compassion, state self-criticism, state rumination, and concern over mistakes were collected pretreatment, at 1 week posttreatment, and at a 4-week follow-up. A mixed factorial MANOVA with follow-up post hoc tests demonstrated moderate-to-strong effects for the intervention at posttest and follow-up (Wilks’s Λ = .566, F (8, 42) = 4.03, p < .01, η2 = .43). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the self-compassion intervention in managing self-criticism, rumination, and concern over mistakes. Fostering a self-compassionate frame of mind is a potential coping resource for women athletes dealing with negative events in sport.

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Mark H. Anshel and Toto Sutarso

The purpose of the present study was to conceptualize maladaptive forms of sport perfectionism by determining the factors (and items within each factor) that best describe this construct among skilled male and female athletes. The sample consisted of 217 undergraduate student athletes ranging in age from 19 to 33 years. A theory-driven four-factor, 18-item Likert-type scale, called the Sport Perfectionism Inventory (SPI), was generated for this study. The factors, each reflecting maladaptive perfectionism to an excessive degree, included the following: concern over mistakes (CM), self-criticism (SC), personal standards (PS), and negative feedback (NF). Results showed that the items were generalizable for both genders, and all correlations between factors in the scale were significant. It was concluded that these dimensions depicted maladaptive sport perfectionism as a function of gender.

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson

behaviors (e.g., fear of negative evaluation, fear of self-compassion, fear of failure, state rumination, concern over mistakes, state self-criticism, shame, negative affect, and passivity), as well as positively related to psychological well-being and constructive reactions (e.g., positivity, perseverance

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Brittany N. Semenchuk, Shaelyn M. Strachan and Michelle Fortier

; Mosewich et al., 2011 ). Self-compassionate people should accurately perceive their goal progress, without self-criticism ( Terry & Leary, 2011 ). This tendency affords them the emotional safety to engage in effective self-monitoring and problem-solving related to goal pursuit ( Neff et al., 2005

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Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill

showing that self-oriented perfectionism is positively correlated with self-criticism focused on self-correction rather than self-punishment ( Thompson & Zuroff, 2004 ). One implication of this is that, in the absence of increasing shame, increasing guilt may prompt restorative action devoid of self

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Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

initiative, and accepting responsibility ( Ferguson, Kowalski, Mack, & Sabiston, 2014 ). In addition, self-compassion has been found to be effective as an intervention to reduce negative cognitive states (i.e., concern over mistakes, rumination, and self-criticism) in female athletes ( Mosewich, Crocker

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Mary Jung, Larkin Lamarche, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson

athletes. A well-established predictor of eating pathology is the personality trait of perfectionism, which involves excessively high standards in combination with harsh self-criticism. Central features of perfectionism are self-presentational concerns and achievement-contingent self-worth, which serve as

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

debilitating as it arises as a coping response to unmet needs of self-esteem and belonging. As such, self-critical perfectionists strive for self-worth and others’ approval via the attainment of excessive standards and engage in harsh self-criticism when these needs are not met. A series of studies by Levine

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

prediabetes diagnoses were grouped into four themes: (a) distress and fear, (b) denial and downplay of risks, (c) guilt and self‐criticism, and (d) self‐compassion. One of the most prominent distress responses surrounded fear of the future, “There’s a big element of worry . . . like I’m on the train and I can

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson

’s functionality but also engaged in self-criticism. To negotiate these perceptions, the women placed less emphasis on appearance and focused on health and physical functioning. There was, however, evidence that they made efforts to manage their appearance in many ways, such as by styling their hair, using