This study investigated the effects of a self-compassion intervention on negative cognitive states and selfcompassion in varsity women athletes. Athletes who self-identified as being self-critical were randomly assigned to a self-compassion intervention (n = 29) or attention control group (n = 22). The self-compassion intervention consisted of a psychoeducation session and writing components completed over a 7-day period. Measures of self-compassion, state self-criticism, state rumination, and concern over mistakes were collected pretreatment, at 1 week posttreatment, and at a 4-week follow-up. A mixed factorial MANOVA with follow-up post hoc tests demonstrated moderate-to-strong effects for the intervention at posttest and follow-up (Wilks’s Λ = .566, F (8, 42) = 4.03, p < .01, η2 = .43). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the self-compassion intervention in managing self-criticism, rumination, and concern over mistakes. Fostering a self-compassionate frame of mind is a potential coping resource for women athletes dealing with negative events in sport.
Amber D. Mosewich, Peter R.E. Crocker, Kent C. Kowalski and Anita DeLongis
Mark H. Anshel and Toto Sutarso
The purpose of the present study was to conceptualize maladaptive forms of sport perfectionism by determining the factors (and items within each factor) that best describe this construct among skilled male and female athletes. The sample consisted of 217 undergraduate student athletes ranging in age from 19 to 33 years. A theory-driven four-factor, 18-item Likert-type scale, called the Sport Perfectionism Inventory (SPI), was generated for this study. The factors, each reflecting maladaptive perfectionism to an excessive degree, included the following: concern over mistakes (CM), self-criticism (SC), personal standards (PS), and negative feedback (NF). Results showed that the items were generalizable for both genders, and all correlations between factors in the scale were significant. It was concluded that these dimensions depicted maladaptive sport perfectionism as a function of gender.
Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson
behaviors (e.g., fear of negative evaluation, fear of self-compassion, fear of failure, state rumination, concern over mistakes, state self-criticism, shame, negative affect, and passivity), as well as positively related to psychological well-being and constructive reactions (e.g., positivity, perseverance
Roy J. Shephard
This paper offers a brief response to the article of Bouffard (2001), which in itself was a reaction to two earlier papers published by the present author (Shephard, 1998, 1999). Bouffard makes a vigorous attack on his perceptions of my observations concerning the use of jargon, the primacy of the scientific method, and postmodernism. Unfortunately, his perceptions of my arguments are not always substantiated by a careful reading of the text. Many of the world’s social ills are rashly attributed uniquely to rationalism. No viable alternatives to the scientific method are suggested, and self-criticism of the postmodern approach is less than optimal. Nevertheless, the paper is to be welcomed, both as a challenge to continuing perfection of evidence-based science and as providing an insight into the thinking of those who espouse the postmodernist philosophy.
Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill
showing that self-oriented perfectionism is positively correlated with self-criticism focused on self-correction rather than self-punishment ( Thompson & Zuroff, 2004 ). One implication of this is that, in the absence of increasing shame, increasing guilt may prompt restorative action devoid of self
Brittany N. Semenchuk, Shaelyn M. Strachan and Michelle Fortier
; Mosewich et al., 2011 ). Self-compassionate people should accurately perceive their goal progress, without self-criticism ( Terry & Leary, 2011 ). This tendency affords them the emotional safety to engage in effective self-monitoring and problem-solving related to goal pursuit ( Neff et al., 2005
Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement
initiative, and accepting responsibility ( Ferguson, Kowalski, Mack, & Sabiston, 2014 ). In addition, self-compassion has been found to be effective as an intervention to reduce negative cognitive states (i.e., concern over mistakes, rumination, and self-criticism) in female athletes ( Mosewich, Crocker
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Mary Jung, Larkin Lamarche, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson
athletes. A well-established predictor of eating pathology is the personality trait of perfectionism, which involves excessively high standards in combination with harsh self-criticism. Central features of perfectionism are self-presentational concerns and achievement-contingent self-worth, which serve as
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
debilitating as it arises as a coping response to unmet needs of self-esteem and belonging. As such, self-critical perfectionists strive for self-worth and others’ approval via the attainment of excessive standards and engage in harsh self-criticism when these needs are not met. A series of studies by Levine
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson
’s functionality but also engaged in self-criticism. To negotiate these perceptions, the women placed less emphasis on appearance and focused on health and physical functioning. There was, however, evidence that they made efforts to manage their appearance in many ways, such as by styling their hair, using