The purpose of the present study was to conceptualize maladaptive forms of sport perfectionism by determining the factors (and items within each factor) that best describe this construct among skilled male and female athletes. The sample consisted of 217 undergraduate student athletes ranging in age from 19 to 33 years. A theory-driven four-factor, 18-item Likert-type scale, called the Sport Perfectionism Inventory (SPI), was generated for this study. The factors, each reflecting maladaptive perfectionism to an excessive degree, included the following: concern over mistakes (CM), self-criticism (SC), personal standards (PS), and negative feedback (NF). Results showed that the items were generalizable for both genders, and all correlations between factors in the scale were significant. It was concluded that these dimensions depicted maladaptive sport perfectionism as a function of gender.
Mark H. Anshel and Toto Sutarso
Roy J. Shephard
This paper offers a brief response to the article of Bouffard (2001), which in itself was a reaction to two earlier papers published by the present author (Shephard, 1998, 1999). Bouffard makes a vigorous attack on his perceptions of my observations concerning the use of jargon, the primacy of the scientific method, and postmodernism. Unfortunately, his perceptions of my arguments are not always substantiated by a careful reading of the text. Many of the world’s social ills are rashly attributed uniquely to rationalism. No viable alternatives to the scientific method are suggested, and self-criticism of the postmodern approach is less than optimal. Nevertheless, the paper is to be welcomed, both as a challenge to continuing perfection of evidence-based science and as providing an insight into the thinking of those who espouse the postmodernist philosophy.
Robert C. Hilliard, Lorenzo A. Redmond and Jack C. Watson II
positive effects for well-being, cognitive states, and self-criticism ( Mosewich, Crocker, Kowalski, & DeLongis, 2013 ; Mosewich, Kowalski, Sabiston, Sedgwick, & Tracy, 2011 ). Interpretation of the above results suggest that self-compassion might play a role in reducing negative cognitions, such as those
Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill and Howard K. Hall
Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree ). The stem was adapted to ensure that participants focussed on the statements in relation to their soccer participation (e.g., “In football…”). The SOP subscale reflects exceedingly high standards from one’s self, accompanied by harsh self-criticism
Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess
, mistakes, or imperfections as total failures ( Frost et al., 1990 ). Therefore, researchers have surmised that for individuals high in evaluative concerns, any shortcoming in their ability to achieve their ideal, desired body shape may trigger self-criticism and feelings of failure ( Hewitt et al., 1995
Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Molly Curcio
health ( Matusek & Knudson, 2009 ). Activism or spiritualty reportedly moved participants’ focus away from internal self-criticism, providing a new sense of identity and a commitment to a larger purpose, which allowed them to leave the ED behind. Next, through analysis of 31 autobiographies by authors
Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes
development of depressive symptoms . Journal of Personality, 66 , 607 – 619 . PubMed ID: 9728418 doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00026 10.1111/1467-6494.00026 Carver , C.S. , & Ganellen , R.J. ( 1983 ). Depression and components of self-punitiveness: High standards, self-criticism, and overgeneralization