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Jane P. Sheldon

One’s perceived competence relates to participation and effort and can vary depending on the self-evaluation sources that athletes value. Ruble and Frey (1991) theorized that phase of skill development may affect one’s preference for different sorts of competence information. The present study tested Ruble and Frey’s model using a sample of 466 adult tennis players. Skill level was athletes’ United States Tennis Association rating. Participants rated the personal importance of tennis and the importance of different sources of self-assessment information. Results showed that beginners were more likely to value temporal comparisons, and advanced players were more likely to value social comparisons. Players rating tennis as highly important were more likely to value temporal comparisons and effort for self-assessment. The findings support Ruble and Frey’s model.

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Pierre H. Beauchamp, Wayne R. Halliwell, Jean F. Fournier and Richard Koestner

This study examined the effects of a 14-week cognitive-behavioral teaching program on the motivation, preparation, and putting performance of novice golfers. A cognitive-behavioral program was adapted from Boutcher and Rotella (1987) and was compared with a physical skills training group and a control group. The Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tusón, Briére, & Blais, 1995) was used to measure intrinsic versus introjected forms of selfregulation. Preputt routines and actual putting performance were measured by observer ratings. Participants completed all dependent measures prior to training and at 3 additional times spaced over 4-week intervals. The results showed that participants in the cognitive-behavioral program displayed enhanced intrinsic motivation, more consistent use of preputt routines, and improved putting performance relative to participants in the other 2 groups. Cognitive-behavioral participants also showed a significantly reduced use of introjection, which reflects a harsh, self-evaluative form of self-regulation similar to ego involvement. The results support the conclusion drawn by Whelan, Myers, Berman, Bryant, and Mellon (1988) that cognitive-behavioral approaches are effective for performance enhancement; they also suggest that such approaches can produce positive motivational effects.

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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse and Gareth Morgan

.e., concrete assistance). Seeking social support is perceived to facilitate athletes’ resilience and ability to overcome obstacles and help them balance sport and other life responsibilities. Synonyms:  • N/A Associated behaviors/outcomes:  • Taking advantage of   a supportive climate Realistic self-evaluation

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Andrew Evans, Robert Morris, Jamie Barker, Tom Johnson, Zoe Brenan and Ben Warner

honest given that honest self-evaluations are paramount to the potential success of PDMS ( Dryden, 2006 ). After our PDMS contract was reinforced, a volunteer was invited to initiate the COPDMS session. We explained that each athlete would make his way to the front of the room in turn, share information

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Elmer A. Castillo and Graig M. Chow

involve a comparison of dancers’ self-evaluations against those of a significant other (e.g., teacher, coach, peer), where a close correspondence between the two parties’ ratings across the profile attributes reinforces self-perceptions of current ability and major discrepancies warrant discussion to

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Julia Allain, Gordon A. Bloom and Wade D. Gilbert

result of making mistakes. They all spoke of their continuous learning process, which included self-reflection, new experiences, and input from the people around them. I am continually self-evaluating myself as a coach to be better. What do I do well, what do I do wrong, and I try to have a very open

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Ryan W. Guenter, John G.H. Dunn and Nicholas L. Holt

three scouts. The PI’s existing relationship with the participants was a central feature of this study, and his personal reflexivity was particularly important. Reflexivity is a process of continual self-evaluation of a researcher’s positionality, along with the active acknowledgment and recognition of

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Jordan D. Herbison, Luc J. Martin and Mustafa Sarkar

coincided with the inherent tendency for social comparison (e.g., point totals, teammates’ fitness levels), a practice that often had a negative impact because it led to critical self-evaluation in areas that were out of their control. In addition to acknowledging how this could lead to insecurities

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Amber D. Mosewich, Catherine M. Sabiston, Kent C. Kowalski, Patrick Gaudreau and Peter R.E. Crocker

-regulatory resources are not compromised due to negative self-evaluations and affect that can arise during times of failure or stress ( Sirois, Kitner, & Hirsch, 2015 ). Although causation cannot be implied from this study, an important applied implication arising from these results is the potential of self