The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below (-5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by strict dietary rules, accompanied by extreme feelings of guilt and self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.
Katherine A. Beals and Melinda M. Manore
Mark Booth, Stephen Cobley and Rhonda Orr
observations in clinical examinations; “sports trauma” is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort, or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and “sports incapacity” is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority
Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich
The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between perceived and actual physical competence in children with mild mental retardation (MMR). Participants were 54 males and 55 females, M age = 9.47. Pearson correlation indicated no significant relationship between perceived and actual physical competence in children with MMR. When the age factor was partialed out, the resulting partial correlations revealed a significant moderate relationship between the two variables for older children with MMR. A 6 × 2 (Age × Gender) MANOVA revealed a significant interaction between age and gender on perceived physical competence. No gender difference was found in younger children, whereas in older children, males had significantly higher perceived competence than females. A possible explanation for the nonsignificant correlation between perceived and actual physical competence in younger children may be insufficient cognitive functioning for making self-evaluations.
Sarpreet Kahlon, Kiah Brubacher-Cressman, Erica Caron, Keren Ramonov, Ruth Taubman, Katherine Berg, F. Virginia Wright and Alicia J. Hilderley
program, typically in relation to their goals. This self-evaluation was often associated with spontaneous expressions about increases in self-confidence or closing the ability gap with their peers. Aurora : Because it helped me feel better about myself, and so how much with CP you can really do. . . . It
Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer
individual reality, reflect upon self-evaluation and feedback provided by others as a commitment to become better, knowing about dignity through research and how it applies to their professional context, and commit to acting and being better. Through the ethic of aspiration and an expanded view of dignity in