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Denise M. Hill, Sheldon Hanton, Nic Matthews and Scott Fleming

This study explores the antecedents, mechanisms, influencing variables, and consequences of choking in sport and identifies interventions that may alleviate choking. Through the use of qualitative methods, the experiences of six elite golfers who choked frequently under pressure were examined and compared with five elite golfers who excelled frequently under pressure. The perspectives of four coaches who had worked extensively with elite golfers who had choked and excelled, were also considered. The study indicated that the participants choked as a result of distraction, which was caused by various stressors. Self-confidence, preparation, and perfectionism were identified as key influencing variables of the participants’ choking episodes, and the consequence of choking was a significant drop in performance that affected negatively future performances. Process goals, cognitive restructuring, imagery, simulated training, and a pre/postshot routine were perceived as interventions that may possibly prevent choking.

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Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery and Jeremiah Weinstock

mistakes, and experience self-focused attention and/or negative self-evaluation. Secondly, the physical stressor included an abbreviated adaptation of the cold pressor test, which is a method of experimental pain induction during which the individual submerges his or her hand into cold water ( Silverthorn

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Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes

program and achievement in sport . The Sport Psychologist, 13 , 69 – 82 . 10.1123/tsp.13.1.69 Rimes , K.A. , & Watkins , E. ( 2005 ). The effects of self-focused rumination on global negative self-judgments in depression . Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43 , 1673 – 1681 . PubMed ID

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Richard Tahtinen, Michael McDougall, Niels Feddersen, Olli Tikkanen, Robert Morris and Noora J. Ronkainen

vulnerability to depression. Here, a vulnerable individual is more likely than the non-vulnerable individual to make internal (self-focused), stable (an enduring characteristic), and global (generalizable across contexts) interferences of a negative event, subsequently leading to hopelessness (depression). In

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Jana L. Fogaca, Jack C. Watson II and Sam J. Zizzi

would mark the practitioners’ development at each domain: a) motivation; b) autonomy; and c) self- and other-awareness. For example, a practitioner who is in level 1 in the intervention skills domain would have high self-focus and anxiety while interacting with the client, making it difficult to focus