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Xiaoyue Hu, Jingxian Li and Lin Wang

surface) and some intrinsic (such as age, sex, and injury history) factors are considered as sports injury risk factors ( Murphy, Connolly, & Beynnon, 2003 ). Notably, sex difference, as a type of intrinsic factor of sports injury, may induce different sports injuries ( Murphy et al., 2003 ). Females may

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Cale Jacobs and Carl Mattacola


Decelerating movements such as landing from a jump have been proposed to be a common mechanism of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).


To compare eccentric hip-abductor strength and kinematics of landing between men and women when performing a hopping task.


Research laboratory.


18 healthy subjects (10 women, 8 men).

Main Outcome Measures:

Eccentric peak torque of the hip abductors and peak knee-joint angles during a 350-millisecond interval after impact.


No significant sex differences were present, but there was a significant inverse relationship between women's eccentric peak torque and peak knee-valgus angle (r = –.61, P = .03).


Women with larger eccentric peak torque demonstrated lower peak knee-valgus angles. By not reaching as large of a valgus angle, there is potentially less stress on the ACL. Increasing eccentric hip-abductor strength might improve knee-joint kinematics during landing from a jump.

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Timothy C. Mauntel, Eric G. Post, Darin A. Padua and David R. Bell

A disparity exists between the rates of male and female lower extremity injuries. One factor that may contribute to this disparity is high-risk biomechanical patterns that are commonly displayed by females. It is unknown what biomechanical differences exist between males and females during an overhead squat. This study compared lower extremity biomechanics during an overhead squat and ranges of motion between males and females. An electromagnetic motion tracking system interfaced with a force platform was used to quantify peak lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during the descent phase of each squat. Range of motion measurements were assessed with a standard goniometer. Differences between male and female kinematics, kinetics, and ranges of motion were identified with t tests. Males displayed greater peak knee valgus angle, peak hip flexion angle, peak vertical ground reaction forces, and peak hip extension moments. Males also displayed less active ankle dorsiflexion with the knee extended and hip internal and external rotation than females. No other differences were observed. The biomechanical differences between males and females during the overhead squat may result from differences in lower extremity ranges of motion. Therefore, sex-specific injury prevention programs should be developed to improve biomechanics and ranges of motion.

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Jennifer M. Medina McKeon, Craig R. Denegar and Jay Hertel

The purpose of this study was to formulate a predictive equation to discriminate males from females using static and dynamic lower extremity (LE) alignments. Twenty-four healthy adults volunteered to participate. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to assess the kinematics of the right hip and knee during two functional tasks. Six measures of static LE alignment were also performed. Statistical comparisons were made between males and females for all variables. Static and dynamic variables that were significantly different by sex were entered into separate discriminant analyses for each task. The resulting equations were each able to correctly predict 87% of the subjects by sex. Fifty-eight percent and 55% of the variance was explained by sex for the vertical jump and plant & jump, respectively. The frontal plane hip angle was the best predictor of sex for both tasks. While there were statistically significant differences between the sexes for static measures of LE alignment, kinematic measures were better at discriminating between sexes.

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Chadwick Debison-Larabie, Bernadette A. Murphy and Michael W.R. Holmes

head perturbations has focused on flexion/extension head movements, 6 – 9 with some seated whiplash protocols investigating lateral perturbations. 10 , 11 Perturbations that cause lateral bend and rotational head motion are required to fully comprehend potential sex differences in neuromuscular

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James J. Hannigan, Louis R. Osternig and Li-Shan Chou

significant correlations were hypothesized in males. 21 A secondary purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in hip strength and hip, pelvis, and trunk kinematics to compare with previous studies. It was hypothesized that males would display greater hip abduction 19 , 23 , 24 and hip external

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Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe and Kelsey Rynkiewicz

than 60 hr on average were less satisfied with their jobs, 7 and this finding highlights additional consequences of the long hours many collegiate athletic trainers are working. We found no sex differences in any of the constructs measured. Previous research within athletic training has found female

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Bryan R. Picco, Meghan E. Vidt and Clark R. Dickerson

small elevation angles in the sagittal plane, although this trend was not observed here (Figure  6 ). While sex differences were not a significant main effect, females in this study demonstrated a slightly more medially rotated scapula than males when raising the arm, and a less medially rotated scapula

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Zachary R. Weber, Divya Srinivasan and Julie N. Côté

, McDaniel, Amann, & Richardson, 2012 ) and may be relevant to the discussion of sex differences in the fatigue response. In addition, Han et al. ( 2015 ) observed an interaction between fatigue and sex, where sensitivity to two-point distinguishability of women was affected by fatigue to a greater degree

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Joaquin A. Barrios and Danielle E. Strotman

The prevalence of medial knee osteoarthritis is greater in females and is associated with varus knee alignment. During gait, medial knee osteoarthritis has been linked to numerous alterations. Interestingly, there has been no research exploring sex differences during walking in healthy individuals with and without varus alignment. Therefore, the gait mechanics of 30 asymptomatic individuals with varus knees (15 females) and 30 normally-aligned controls (15 females) were recorded. Gait parameters associated with medial knee osteoarthritis were analyzed with two-factor analyses of variance. In result, varus males exhibited the greatest peak knee adduction moments, while normal females showed the greatest peak hip adduction angles and pelvic drop excursions. By sex, females exhibited greater peak hip adduction angles and moments and greater pelvic drop excursion, but lesser peak knee adduction angles. By alignment type, varus subjects exhibited greater peak knee adduction angles and moments, midstance knee flexion angles and excursion, and eversion angles and lateral ground reaction forces, but lesser peak hip adduction angles. In conclusion, females generally presented with proximal mechanics related to greater hip adduction, whereas males presented with more knee adduction. Varus subjects demonstrated a number of alterations associated with medial knee osteoarthritis. The differential sex effects were far less conclusive.