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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

women. For example, the sex differences of world records in running races from 100 m to the marathon declined gradually until the 1990s, 2 , 3 with similar trends in most other sports, as well. In fact, the linear regressions predicted that women would soon outrun men. However, as expected from the sex

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Jonathon Senefeld, Carolyn Smith and Sandra K. Hunter

The sex difference in marathon running is increased with lower participation of women than men, but whether this occurs for ultramarathon running is not known. The study purpose was to determine whether the sex difference in performance widens among lower-placed runners and the association between the sex difference in running speed and participation rates. The top-10 ultramarathon running times, age at performance date, and the number of men and women finishers were analyzed from 20 races (45–160 km) in the US Track and Field Ultra Running Grand Prix. Men were faster than women for all events (18.7% ± 5.8%, P < .001). The sex difference in speed was the least for 100 km (14.9% ± 4.2%) and greatest for 45–50 km (19.3% ± 5.8%). The top-10 men were younger than the top-10 women (37.7 ± 3.2 and 39.0 ± 3.1 y, respectively, P < .001). The sex difference in speed increased with finishing place (1st place 15.6% ± 6.6% vs 10th 20.8% ± 5.6%, P < .001). Association analysis showed that the sex difference in speed was largest when there were fewer women than men finishers in a race; the strength of the association was greatest for the 80-km distance and least for the 160-km. Lower participation rates of women than men in the lower-distance ultramarathons and less depth among lower-placed women runners inflate the sex difference in ultramarathon performance.

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E. Swanson and Matthew T. Wittbrodt

media (eg, under isolated competitions when women outperform male competitors). The sex difference in performance is highly cited over several decades, predominantly in sports measured objectively by time (eg, running and swimming), centimeters, and kilograms. However, elite athletes by their nature are

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Harri Luchsinger, Jan Kocbach, Gertjan Ettema and Øyvind Sandbakk

sprint races among men. 2 However, it is still unclear how much of the overall performance in individual races is explained by course time and shooting variables. In our previous study on Biathlon World Cup sprint races, we found no sex difference in shooting performance, 1 which is in line with

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Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

between 0.018% and 1.7%. 2 Just as a comparison, the global fraction of ginger-haired people approximates 1% to 2%. 3 A major factor for the sex differences in performance is a well-established dose–response relationship between circulating testosterone and muscle mass, strength, and hemoglobin level

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Harri Luchsinger, Jan Kocbach, Gertjan Ettema and Øyvind Sandbakk

differences in cross-country skiing, Sandbakk et al 7 documented a 17% sex difference in peak speed during a roller-skiing test to exhaustion using the skating technique, whereas Bolger et al 8 showed 9% faster average speeds in men in a case where the race distance was 50% longer for men (15 vs 10 km

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Riley Galloway, Robert Booker and Scott Owens

least moderate intensity. When observing the amount of sedentary time during recess throughout the week, girls accumulated significantly more minutes (12.9 ± 9.4 min/day) as compared with boys (10.0 ± 6.5 min/day; p  = .033). Significant sex differences were found, with boys obtaining greater amounts

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Christoph Alexander Rüst, Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers


The sex difference in ultraendurance performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners, and triathletes but not in cyclists. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex difference in the longest ultracycling race in the world, the Race Across America (RAAM).


Cycling speed of female and male finishers in the RAAM between 1982 and 2012 was compared.


A total of 452 athletes including 404 men (89.4%) and 48 women (10.6%) finished. Mean cycling speed was 19.4 ± 2.0 km/h for men and 17.5 ± 2.0 km/h for women. Men were riding 1.9 ± 2.0 km/h (10.9%) faster than women. The fastest cycling speed ever was 24.77 km/h for men and 21.27 km/h for women, with a sex difference of 14.2%. Between 1982 and 2012, cycling speed was 22.7 ± 1.1 km/h for the annual fastest men and 18.4 ± 1.6 km/h for the annual fastest women, with an unchanged sex difference of 19.4% ± 7.3% (P > .05). For the annual top 3 men, cycling speed was 21.8 ± 0.9 km/h with no change across years (P > .05). The annual top 3 women achieved a cycling speed of 16.6 ± 1.0 km/h with no change over time (P > .05). The sex difference of 24.6% ± 3.0% showed no change across years (P > .05).


In the last 30 y, men crossed America faster than women, and it seems unlikely that women will overtop men in the near future in the RAAM. However, the sex difference was only 14–15% among top competitors. Future studies need to analyze anthropometric, psychological, and physiological characteristics of successful female and male ultracyclists.

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Coen C.W.G. Bongers, Dominique S.M. ten Haaf, Nicholas Ravanelli, Thijs M.H. Eijsvogels and Maria T.E. Hopman

the relation between CBT, WBSR, and heat production remains during exercise in ecologically valid conditions in a large heterogenous group of males and females ( n  = 375), and assess whether there are sex differences in CBT and sweating responses. CBT and WBSR were measured during 3 editions (2008

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Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

.pone.0160480 23. Ethun K . Chapter 9—Sex and gender differences in body composition, lipid metabolism, and glucose regulation . In: Neigh GN , Mitzelfelt MM , eds. Sex Differences in Physiology . Boston, MA : Academic Press ; 2016 : 145 – 165 . 10.1016/B978-0-12-802388-4.00009-4 24. Boning D