Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 34 items for :

  • "sex difference" x
  • Social Studies in Sport and Physical Activity x
Clear All
Restricted access

Lynda B. Ransdell and Christine L. Wells

Do women out-perform men in endurance sports? Are women as strong, pound for pound, as men? Many questions have been raised about the ability of women and men to perform physical tasks equally well. The issue of sex differences and similarities in performance has considerable significance today as women seek physically demanding careers in police-work, fire-fighting, the military, industry, and athletics. As more women participate in recreational and career opportunities formerly open only to men, knowledge about sex differences in response to physical exertion and training becomes increasingly important. In this paper we describes differences between the sexes in athletic performance.

Most performance differences are due to variations in morphological (structural) or physiological characteristics typical of women and men (Wells, 1991). Nevertheless, variations in these characteristics are often as large or larger within each sex as they are between the sexes. The same is true of physical performance. Thus, when the entire population is considered, there are extensive differences in performance within each sex, and considerable overlap in performance between the sexes.

We will base our examination of performance differences on the most outstanding performances of each sex: those exemplified by World Records in athletic events. We seek to answer such questions as: How large are sex differences in world record performances? Can existing performance differences be explained entirely by biological differences between the sexes? Or, are a large portion of these performance differ-ences attributable to sociocultural factors?

We will analyze sex differences in performance relative to the human energy system. This system allows an extraordinary range of mechanisms for neuromuscular coordination and metabolism. Because of this, the human has a virtually unlimited movement repertoire and is capable of movements requiring large bursts of energy over very brief periods of time, as well as movements requiring low levels of energy production over very long periods of time. We will progress from sports that require very high intensity and explosive quality movements such as jumping and power lifting, through the “energy spectrum” to feats of endurance such as marathon running, ultra-distance triathlon, and open-water distance swimming.

Due to our desire to focus this paper on a reasonable amount of data, our analysis will be limited as follows:

1) for sex differences in high intensity-brief duration, explosive per-formance, we will discuss the high jump, long jump, and various mea-sures of strength (powerlifting),

2) for sex differences in high intensity-short duration performance, we will present data on sprint running (100m, 400m) and swimming (100m),

3) for sex differences in moderate intensity-moderate duration performance, we will discuss middle-distance running (1500m, 5000m, 10,000m), and swimming (1500m), and

4) for differences in low intensity-long duration performance, we will discuss the marathon, the "Ironman Triathlon," and open ocean distance swimming.

Restricted access

Darlene A. Sedlock

This study is a comparison of both the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) between women and men. Eighteen (9 women, 9 men) physically active, young adult volunteers performed a moderate exercise in the early morning after having refrained from any strenuous activity for the previous 36-48 hr. Baseline oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured for the last 15 min of a 45 min seated rest. The 30 min cycle ergometer exercise was performed at 60% of each subject’s previously determined peak VO2. Subjects sat quietly in a chair during recovery until VO2 returned to baseline. The women had a significantly lower (t=4.22, p<0.01) resting VO2(0.22±0.03 L min−1) than the men (0.31±0.06 L min−1), however no significant difference was observed when resting VO2 was expressed relative to body weight. VO2 values during exercise were also significantly lower in the women compared to the men (t=4.85, p<0.01). Duration of EPOC was similar between the two groups (women=27.6±15.6, men=28.2±15.9 min). The 38% difference in magnitude of EPOC between the women (9.4±4.7 kcal) and men (13.0±4.6 kcal) was not statistically significant and approximated 5% of the exercise energy expenditure in each group. It was concluded that there was no sex difference in EPOC duration following moderate exercise conditions. Magnitude of EPOC was small for both groups, with women having a slightly lower value.

Restricted access

.1.23 Decompression Sickness in Women Recreational Scuba Divers Jacalyn J. Robert 4 1999 8 8 1 1 47 47 54 54 10.1123/wspaj.8.1.47 Sex Differences in Athletic Performance Lynda B. Ransdell Ph.D. Christine L. Wells Ph.D. 4 1999 8 8 1 1 55 55 81 81 10.1123/wspaj.8.1.55 Television Coverage of Professional Golf: A

Restricted access

Courteney L. Benjamin, William M. Adams, Ryan M. Curtis, Yasuki Sekiguchi, Gabrielle E.W. Giersch and Douglas J. Casa

team sports, females reported better sleep quality than males; however, 13% of females in this study had “fairly bad” or “very bad” sleep quality as rated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( Mah et al., 2018 ). In addition to these known sex differences, early morning training sessions negatively

Restricted access

E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels

females ( Smith et al., 2009 ). The current study examined how competitive 12- to 14-year-old soccer players’ perceptions of the caring, task- and ego-involving climates related to their goal orientations and examine sex differences. Caring and task-involving climates were hypothesized to positively

Restricted access

Anna Posbergh

instead of the grand narrative of evolved sex differences” (p. 17). Furthermore, they contribute to the growing body of gender and science intersecting literature by providing a framework for analyzing the methodological choices within scientific studies through their case study of testosterone. By

Restricted access

Claire-Marie Roberts and Jacky Forsyth

. Physical Training and Nutrition The sex differences in physiology between men and women are often the starkest when you think about sport and exercise. Yet, from the research presented, it became clear that important physiological factors are rarely considered when designing suitable nutrition and physical

Restricted access

Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield

D ratio is a putative marker of prenatal testosterone exposure that has been utilized as an important non-invasive biomarker in research. First, these sex differences in 2D4D are already observable at the end of the first trimester of fetal development and individual differences appear to emerge

Restricted access

Sandra J. Shultz

Despite extensive research, we still do not fully understand the biological mechanisms that underlie a female's increased susceptibility for suffering a noncontact ACL injury. While sex differences in neuromuscular control are often implicated, prevention efforts addressing these differences have not resulted in a profound or sustainable reduction in injury rates. This paper will explore two likely scenarios that explain this greater susceptibility in females: (1) females have a structurally weaker ligament that is more prone or susceptible to failure at a given load (scenario #1), or (2) females develop less knee protection and experiences higher relative loads on the ACL (scenario #2). While we have learned much over the last two decades about ACL injury risk in females, much remains unknown. Continued research is of paramount importance if we are to effectively identify those females who are at greatest risk for injury and effectively reduce their susceptibility through appropriate interventions.

Restricted access

Gregory A. Cranmer, Maria Brann and Nicholas D. Bowman

Previous studies have suggested that media reify frames that subtly enforce sex differences in a manner that detracts from women athletes’ athleticism. This phenomenon is referred to as ambivalence. To analyze ambivalence, this study introduces a theoretically and empirically supported coding scheme that was used to conduct a quantitative frame analysis of 157 images featured in ESPN’s The Body Issue. These images were coded for frames that de-emphasize athleticism, sexualize athletes, or deny a sporting context. Results suggest that athlete sex is associated with de-emphasized athleticism and sexualized frames, and sport gender is associated with context frames. Results also support longitudinal trends in The Body Issue series, which suggest that the series has become more sexualized and removed from a sports context but has decreased the use of frames that de-emphasize athleticism. In general, The Body Issue continues to reinforce established media trends that trivialize female athletes, despite claiming to do the opposite.