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Gregory A. Cranmer, Maria Brann and Nicholas D. Bowman

Previous studies have suggested that media reify frames that subtly enforce sex differences in a manner that detracts from women athletes’ athleticism. This phenomenon is referred to as ambivalence. To analyze ambivalence, this study introduces a theoretically and empirically supported coding scheme that was used to conduct a quantitative frame analysis of 157 images featured in ESPN’s The Body Issue. These images were coded for frames that de-emphasize athleticism, sexualize athletes, or deny a sporting context. Results suggest that athlete sex is associated with de-emphasized athleticism and sexualized frames, and sport gender is associated with context frames. Results also support longitudinal trends in The Body Issue series, which suggest that the series has become more sexualized and removed from a sports context but has decreased the use of frames that de-emphasize athleticism. In general, The Body Issue continues to reinforce established media trends that trivialize female athletes, despite claiming to do the opposite.

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Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley and Lea Rossi

volunteering: Insights from crew 2002 at the XVII commonwealth games . Managing Leisure, 10 ( 4 ), 219 – 236 . doi:10.1080/13606710500348086 10.1080/13606710500348086 Eagly , A.H. ( 1987 ). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation . Hillsdale, MI : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh

indices of the status of aggregates of persons as social entities . Behavioral Science, 3 ( 1 ), 14 – 25 . doi:10.1002/bs.3830030103 10.1002/bs.3830030103 Canli , T. , Desmond , J.E. , Zhao , Z. , & Gabrieli , J. ( 2002 ). Sex differences in the neural basis of emotional memories

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Andrew C. Billings, Melvin Lewis, Kenon A. Brown and Qingru Xu

Press . Schallhorn , C. , Knoll , J. , & Schramm , H. ( 2017 ). ‘Girls just want to have fun?’ Sex differences in motives of watching the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship . Sport in Society, 20 ( 9 ), 1118 – 1133 . doi:10.1080/17430437.2016.1269079 10

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T. Christopher Greenwell, Jason M. Simmons, Meg Hancock, Megan Shreffler and Dustin Thorn

, 285 – 290 . PubMed doi:10.1037/h0033731 10.1037/h0033731 Douglas , D. , & Jamieson , K. ( 2006 ). A farewell to remember: Interrogating the Nancy Lopez farewell tour . Sociology of Sport Journal, 23 , 117 – 141 . doi:10.1123/ssj.23.2.117 10.1123/ssj.23.2.117 Eagly , A.H. ( 1987 ). Sex

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Janelle E. Wells, Melanie Sartore-Baldwin, Nefertiti A. Walker and Cheryl E. Gray

, H. , Arenas , A. , & Munduate , L. ( 2018 ). Workplace incivility as modern sexual prejudice . Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33 ( 12 ), 1978 – 2004 . PubMed ID: 26704986 doi: 10.1177/0886260515621083 Eagly , A.H. ( 1987 ). Reporting sex differences . American Psychologist, 42

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Matthew Katz, Nefertiti A. Walker and Lauren C. Hindman

:10.1179/ssa.2011.5.1.9 10.1179/ssa.2011.5.1.9 Ibarra , H. ( 1992 ). Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm . Administrative Science Quarterly, 37 , 422 – 447 . doi:10.2307/2393451 10.2307/2393451 Ibarra , H. ( 1995 ). Race

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Marissa Banu-Lawrence, Stephen Frawley and Larena Hoeber

national sport organizations. Notably, the managers interviewed ascribed the absence of women in positions of power to “‘tradition,’ ‘society’ or ‘natural’ sex difference” ( McKay, 1997 , p. 51). The issue with this attitude is that it does not problematize gender skewness, and through an implicit