The aim of the current study was to analyze the temporal effects that unsportsmanlike fouls may have on basketball teams’ scoring performance under consideration of context-related variables. The authors analyzed 130 unsportsmanlike fouls from 362 elite basketball games (men’s and women’s Olympic Games, European and World Championships). The context-related variables studied were score-line, quality of opposition, timeout situation, minutes remaining, and player status. The data were analyzed with linear-regression models. The results showed that both teams (the team that made the foul and the opponent) had similar positive scoring performances during 1 and 3 ball possessions after the unsportsmanlike foul (short-term effect). However, 5 ball possessions after the foul (midterm effect), the team that made the foul had a scoring disadvantage (−0.96) and the opponent team an advantage (0.78). The context-related variable quality of opposition was significant only during 1 ball possession, with negative effects for the team that made the foul and positive effects for the opponent. The final outcome showed a positive effect for score-line when the unsportsmanlike foul was made (0.96) and for quality of opposition (0.64).
Miguel-Ángel Gómez, Enrique Ortega Toro and Philip Furley
Betty C. Kelley, Robert C. Eklund and Michelle Ritter-Taylor
The purpose of this investigation was to examine stress and burnout among collegiate tennis coaches. Three alternative models of stress-mediated relationships between personal/situational variables (hardiness, coaching issues, competitive level, gender, trait anxiety, initiating and consideration leadership styles) and burnout among men (n = 163) and women (n = 98) collegiate head tennis coaches were examined. Preliminary analysis revealed that the tennis coaches in this investigation were suffering from levels of burnout similar to those of other helping professionals working in higher education (Maslach & Jackson, 1986). A gender-by-competition-level (2 × 2) MANOVA on study variables revealed a significant main effect for gender but not for competition level. The women had a higher tendency than the men did to find coaching issues stressful. Structural equation modeling revealed that the stress-mediation model, also featuring direct effects of personality/dispositional variables on burnout, accounted for observed relationships in data more adequately than the other alternative models did.
Stephen J. Bull
Adherence to mental-skills training has received little empirical investigation despite the recent growth and development in applied sport psychology services. The present study was designed to identity personal and situational variables influencing adherence to a mental training program. Volunteer athletes (N=34) were given a 4-week educational program before being left to train on their own for an experimental period of 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment intervention conditions (control, written reminders, and group meetings) designed to influence adherence behavior. Results demonstrated the influence of self-motivation in predicting mental-training adherence, but the interventions had no significant effect. Adherence levels were generally low but variable between athletes. Interviews with the athletes indicated the need for individualization of training programs, and problems of time constraints were identified as being influential in the adherence process. Comparable athletes (N—18) who chose not to volunteer for the mental training program were psychometrically tested and demonstrated lower sport motivation than the volunteer athletes but greater skill in concentration.
Charles B. Corbin, Michael J. Stewart and William O. Blair
Lenney (1977) suggests that three situational factors are likely to affect the self-confidence of females in achievement situations. These factors are the sex orientation of the task, social comparison, and the need for performance feedback. In this study, 40 children, 20 of each sex, were studied to determine if the self-confidence of young females in their motor performance abilities was affected by Lenney's third situational variable, performance feedback. Presumably, females need feedback about their performance if they are to attain and/or maintain adequate self-confidence levels. The experiment was designed to control the first two factors: sex orientation of the task and social comparison. Results indicated that when performing a task perceived to be “neutral” in sex orientation in a noncompetitive, noncomparative environment, the self-confidence of young girls did not differ from young boys. In the absence of Lenney's (1977) first two factors, girls did not seem to lack self-confidence nor did they seem to be more dependent on performance feedback than boys.
Robert J. Vallerand, Pasquale G. Colavecchio and Luc G. Pelletier
This paper introduces a model on psychological momentum (PM) in sport (Vallerand, 1985, 1987) and presents preliminary results supportive of the model. The antecedents-consequences PM model postulates that PM refers to perceptions that the actor is progressing toward his/her goal. The model emphasizes that PM perception must be distinguished from its antecedents and performance consequences. In addition, personal and situational variables are hypothesized to lead to perceptions of PM while personal and contextual variables are hypothesized to moderate the PM-performance relationship. This study tested hypotheses derived from the model with respect to the impact of antecedent variables on PM perceptions and attempted to ascertain the link between PM perceptions and performance inferences. Subjects with high and low tennis experience read scenarios depicting a match between two tennis players wherein the score was tied at 5 all in the first set. Two versions of the scenarios were prepared so that the momentum pattern as manipulated by the score configuration was either present or absent. Results revealed that the presence of a PM pattern led to enhanced PM perceptions. In addition, both the score configuration and the experience variables led to inferences that the player having PM should win the first set, and there were some limited indications that such inferences generalized to winning the match. Results are discussed in light of the PM model, and directions for future research are underscored.
Peter Fowler, Rob Duffield and Joanna Vaile
The current study examined the effects of short-haul air travel on competition performance and subsequent recovery. Six male professional Australian football (soccer) players were recruited to participate in the study. Data were collected from 12 matches, which included 6 home and away matches against the same 4 teams. Together with the outcome of each match, data were obtained for team technical and tactical performance indicators and individual player-movement patterns. Furthermore, sleep quantity and quality, hydration, and perceptual fatigue were measured 2 days before, the day of, and 2 days after each match. More competition points were accumulated (P > .05, d = 1.10) and fewer goals were conceded (P > .05, d = 0.93) in home than in away matches. Furthermore, more shots on goal (P > .05, d = 1.17) and corners (P > .05, d = 1.45) and fewer opposition shots on goal (P > .05, d = 1.18) and corners (P < .05, d = 2.32) occurred, alongside reduced total distance covered (P > .05, d = 1.19) and low-intensity activity (P < .05, d = 2.25) during home than during away matches. However, while oxygen saturation was significantly lower during than before and after outbound and return travel (P < .01), equivocal differences in sleep quantity and quality, hydration, and perceptual fatigue were observed before and after competition away compared with home. These results suggest that, compared with short-haul air travel, factors including situational variables, territoriality, tactics, and athlete psychological state are more important in determining match outcome. Furthermore, despite the potential for disrupted recovery patterns, return travel did not impede player recovery or perceived readiness to train.
Aaron T. Scanlan, Robert Stanton, Charli Sargent, Cody O’Grady, Michele Lastella and Jordan L. Fox
, Lorenzo A , Ibañez S , Sampaio J . Ball possession effectiveness in men’s and women’s elite basketball according to situational variables in different game periods . J Sports Sci . 2013 ; 31 ( 14 ): 1578 – 1587 . doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.792942 10.1080/02640414.2013.792942 23679867 3. Conte
Carolina F. Wilke, Samuel P. Wanner, Weslley H.M. Santos, Eduardo M. Penna, Guilherme P. Ramos, Fabio Y. Nakamura and Rob Duffield
settings, which reinforces the concern of whether single-session profiles (ie, faster or slower recovery) would apply in chronic monitoring programs within team sport settings. In addition to particular recovery profiles, understanding whether the situational variables (ie, load, stage of the training
Jordan L. Fox, Robert Stanton, Charli Sargent, Cody J. O’Grady and Aaron T. Scanlan
. Redwood-Brown AJ , O’Donoghue PG , Nevil AM , Saward C , Dyer N , Sunderland C . Effects of situational variables on the physical activity profiles of elite soccer players in different score line states . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2018 ; 28 : 2515 – 2526 . PubMed ID: 30055045 doi: 10
Paul S. Bradley and Jack D. Ade
running with the ball in a professional soccer team . J Sports Sci. 2010 ; 28 ( 3 ): 319 – 326 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410903473851 10.1080/02640410903473851 50. Lago C , Casais L , Dominguez E , Sampaio J . The effects of situational variables on distance covered at various speeds in