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Chiharu Iwasaka, Tsubasa Mitsutake and Etsuo Horikawa

The loss of skeletal muscle mass in older adults is related to functional impairment, disability, and mortality ( Balogun et al., 2017 ; Baumgartner et al., 1998 ; Janssen, Heymsfield, & Ross, 2002 ). Evidence from sarcopenia-related research has increased, focusing on maintaining and improving

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Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie and Hiroaki Kanehisa

 al . Biomechanical and skeletal muscle determinants of maximum running speed with aging . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ; 41 ( 4 ): 844 – 856 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181998366 19276848 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181998366 19. Nakatani M , Takai Y , Akagi R , et al . Validity of muscle thickness

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Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak and Mandy E. Parra

obese ( 34 ), and it is a worldwide health concern ( 37 ). Adipose infiltration in skeletal muscles of the lower extremity is linked to glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in adults ( 5 , 19 – 21 ). In the realm of insulin resistance in children, skeletal muscle is often overlooked despite the

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Kyle L. Timmerman, Kevin D. Ballard, Michael A. Deal, Lisa C. Tagariello, Jenna M. Karrow, Gabrielle A. Volk, Adam Meisler, Ian D. Connors and Rachael E. Mott

older adults, 21 suggesting that PA may upregulate antioxidant defenses in older adults. To our knowledge, only one other study has examined the association between habitual PA and endogenous antioxidants in skeletal muscle. Nyberg et al 22 found greater skeletal muscle expression of SOD in older

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer

the skeletal muscle, as the exercise they analyzed was not isolated to a single muscle group (cycling at 1 and 1.5 W·kg −1 ). Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a trail-running race on muscle oxidative function by measuring pulmonary gas exchange variables and muscle

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Alif Laila Tisha, Ashley Allison Armstrong, Amy Wagoner Johnson and Citlali López-Ortiz

, we analyze the series and lateral force components separately and then return to the general conceptual model to consider the net effect of force transmission in a muscle fiber contraction. Conceptual Model The system is represented using a cross-sectional view of skeletal muscle (Figure  2A ). We

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

. PubMed ID: 23626925 doi:10.1515/plm-2012-0032 10.1515/plm-2012-0032 23626925 2. Alves AN , Fernandes KPS , Deana AM , Bussadori SK , Mesquita-Ferrari RA . Effects of low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle repair: a systematic review . Am J Phys Med Rehabil . 2014 ; 93 ( 12 ): 1073

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Jeffrey J. Dueweke, Tariq M. Awan and Christopher L. Mendias

Eccentric-contraction-induced skeletal muscle injuries, included in what is clinically referred to as muscle strains, are among the most common injuries treated in the sports medicine setting. Although patients with mild injuries often fully recover to their preinjury levels, patients who suffer moderate or severe injuries can have a persistent weakness and loss of function that is refractory to rehabilitation exercises and currently available therapeutic interventions. The objectives of this review were to describe the fundamental biophysics of force transmission in muscle and the mechanism of muscle-strain injuries, as well as the cellular and molecular processes that underlie the repair and regeneration of injured muscle tissue. The review also summarizes how commonly used therapeutic modalities affect muscle regeneration and opportunities to further improve our treatment of skeletal muscle strain injuries.

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Walter Herzog, Timothy Koh, Evelyne Hasler and Tim Leonard

We hypothesize that the neuromuscular system is designed to function effectively in accomplishing everyday movement tasks. Since everyday movement tasks may vary substantially in terms of speed and resistance, we speculate that agonistic muscles contribute differently to varying movement tasks such that the mechanical, structural, and physiological properties of the system are optimized at all times. We further hypothesize that a mechanical perturbation to the musculoskeletal system, such as the loss of an important joint ligament or the change of a muscle’s line of action, causes an adaptation of the system aimed at reestablishing effective function. Here. we demonstrate how the specificity of the cat ankle extensors is used to accommodate different locomotor tasks. We then illustrate how the loss of an important ligament in the cat knee leads to neuromuscular adaptation. Finally, we discuss the adaptability of skeletal muscle following an intervention that changes a muscle’s line of action, moment arm, and excursion.

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Emily Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Adam Wacher, Christopher S. Fry and Douglas Paddon-Jones

et al., 2011 ). To mimic the overt physical inactivity experienced during hospitalization, while separating the catabolic, disease-related effects from the intrinsic effects of skeletal muscle disuse, we subjected a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older adults to a 7-day bed rest (BR) protocol