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Jennifer L. Walton-Fisette and Theresa A. Walton-Fisette

engaging in running, many for the assumed health benefits, recently, some research has exposed negative health consequences associated with distance running, such as potential damage to one’s joints and skeletal muscles over time ( Jastrzębski, Żychowska, Radzimiński, Konieczna, & Kortas, 2015 ) and

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Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam

status may be considered in terms of physical, skeletal, and sexual maturity, and each type of maturity status has different indicators that can be compared to a standard. The simplest, least invasive, and most commonly used maturity indicator in females is age at menarche, or age at first menstrual

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athletes with previous energy deficit and menstrual dysfunction. Research over the last three decades has advanced our understanding of female athlete bone health. Future research should explore whether or not exercise-related skeletal benefits or compromises continue into later adulthood and what impact

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Ronald F. Zernicke, Grant C. Goulet, Peter R. Cavanagh, Benno M. Nigg, James A. Ashton-Miller, Heather A. McKay and Ton van den Bogert

As a field, biomechanics comprises research from the molecular and cellular levels, to tissues, to organs, to organisms and their movements. In the past 50 years, the impact of biomechanics research on society has been amplified dramatically. Here, we provide five brief summaries of exemplar biomechanics results that have had substantial impact on health and our society, namely 1) spaceflight and microgravitational effects on musculoskeletal health; 2) impact forces, soft tissue vibrations, and skeletal muscle tuning affecting human locomotion; 3) childbirth mechanics, injuries, and pelvic floor dysfunction; 4) prescriptive physical activity in childhood to enhance skeletal growth and development to prevent osteoporotic fractures in adulthood and aging; and 5) creative innovations in technology that have transformed the visual arts and entertainment.

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Kathleen F. Janz and Shelby L. Francis

Although there is strong and consistent evidence that childhood and adolescent physical activity is osteogenic, the evidence concerning its sustained effects to adult bone health is not conclusive. Therefore the value of interventions, in addition to beneficial bone adaptation, could be exposure to activities children enjoy and therefore continue. As such, interventions should provide skills, pleasure, and supportive environments to ensure continued bone-strengthening physical activity with age. Until the dose-response as well as timing of physical activity to bone health is more fully understood, it is sensible to assume that physical activity is needed throughout the lifespan to improve and maintain skeletal health. Current federal guidelines for health-related physical activity, which explicitly recommend bone-strengthening physical activities for youth, should also apply to adults.

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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

approximately 14 years of age, and have a slightly greater magnitude of height gain at peak (11 cm/year vs. 9 cm/year for boys and girls, respectively). At the same time, other skeletal changes are occurring that result in wider shoulders in boys and wider hips in girls. Boys also demonstrate a rapid increase

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Bradley D. Hatfield

expenditure and the expression of metabolic efficiency as an essential element of the physical adaptations to the imposed demands of the task through practice and training. A fundamental example of this phenomenon is the reduction in the number of motor units recruited in skeletal muscle by the central

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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke

such type of structural response that is often investigated is the skeletal system’s response to movement patterns. One example is in overarm throwing movements, where the arm is subjected to torsional loads generated entirely by internal muscle forces. While weight-bearing exercise has long been known

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Richard B. Kreider

.3390/nu7010209 Bergstrom , J. , & Hultman , E. ( 1969 ). Glycogen content of skeletal muscle in patients with renal failure . Acta Medica Scandinavica, 186 ( 3 ), 177 – 181 . PubMed ID: 5363493 doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1969.tb01460.x 10.1111/j.0954-6820.1969.tb01460.x Bergstrom , J. , Hultman

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John H. Challis

), 53 – 74 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640419108729855 10.1080/02640419108729855 Close , R.I. ( 1972 ). Dynamic properties of mammalian skeletal muscle . Physiological Reviews, 52 , 129 – 197 . PubMed 10.1152/physrev.1972.52.1.129 Cook , C.D. , & Hamann , J.F. ( 1961 ). Relation of lung volumes