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Chanel T. LoJacono, Ryan P. MacPherson, Nikita A. Kuznetsov, Louisa D. Raisbeck, Scott E. Ross and Christopher K. Rhea

Obstacle crossing, such as stepping over a curb, becomes more challenging with natural aging and could lead to obstacle-related trips and falls. To reduce fall-risk, obstacle training programs using physical obstacles have been developed, but come with space and human resource constraints. These barriers could be removed by using a virtual obstacle crossing training program, but only if the learned gait characteristics transfer to a real environment. We examined whether virtual environment obstacle crossing behavior is transferred to crossing real environment obstacles. Forty participants (n = 20 younger adults and n = 20 older adults) completed two sessions of virtual environment obstacle crossing, which was preceded and followed by one session of real environment obstacle crossing. Participants learned to cross the virtual obstacle more safely and that change in behavior was transferred to the real environment via increased foot clearance and alterations in foot placement before and after the real environment obstacle. Further, while both age groups showed transfer to the real environment task, they differed on the limb in which their transfer effects applied. This suggests it is plausible to use virtual reality training to enhance gait characteristics in the context of obstacle avoidance, potentially leading to a novel way to reduce fall-risk.

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Lindsay E. Kipp

Purpose:

A signature characteristic of positive youth development (PYD) programs is the opportunity to develop life skills, such as social, behavioral, and moral competencies, that can be generalized to domains beyond the immediate activity. Although context-specific instruments are available to assess developmental outcomes, a measure of life skills transfer would enable evaluation of PYD programs in successfully teaching skills that youth report using in other domains. The purpose of our studies was to develop and validate a measure of perceived life skills transfer, based on data collected with The First Tee, a physical activity-based PYD program.

Method:

In 3 studies, we conducted a series of steps to provide content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability for the life skills transfer survey (LSTS), a measure of perceived life skills transfer.

Results:

Study 1 provided content validity for the LSTS that included 8 life skills and 50 items. Study 2 revealed construct validity (structural validity) through a confirmatory factor analysis and convergent validity by correlating scores on the LSTS with scores on an assessment tool that measures a related construct. Study 3 offered additional construct validity by reassessing youth 1 year later and showing that scores during both time periods were invariant in factor pattern, loadings, and variances and covariances. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated internal consistency reliability of the LSTS.

Conclusion:

Results from 3 studies provide evidence of content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability for the LSTS, which can be used in evaluation research with youth development programs.

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Nili Steinberg, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Janet Karin and Oren Tirosh

Background: Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not adequately been addressed. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. Methods: A total of 36 male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14–19 years) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turnout position, under six different conditions: (1) “relaxed” posture; (2) “ballet” posture; (3) barefoot; (4) ballet shoes with textured insoles; (5) barefoot on a textured mat; and (6) barefoot on a spiky mat. Results: A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the ballet posture compared with standing in the relaxed posture and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p < .05), and static PB in the relaxed posture was significantly better than PB in all the other five conditions tested. Dynamic PB was significantly better while standing in ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat compared with all other conditions (p < .05). Conclusions: The practical implications derived from this study are that both male and female dancers should try to be relaxed in their postural muscles when practicing a ballet aligned position, including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces, and both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.

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David G. Behm

and volume, to chase the dream of a professional career with its associated high income or the prestige of Olympic or international success. Motor learning research has accumulated a body of evidence that espouses greater skill transfer benefits from playing and competing in a variety of sports and

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Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Gregory D. Myer and Adam W. Kiefer

. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19 ( 1 ), 51 – 60 . PubMed ID: 15705045 doi:10.1519/13643.1 Myer , G.D. , Stroube , B.W. , DiCesare , C.A. , Brent , J.L. , Ford , K.R. , Heidt , R.S. , Jr. , & Hewett , T.E. ( 2013 ). Augmented feedback supports skill transfer and

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János Négyesi, Menno P. Veldman, Kelly M.M. Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi and Tibor Hortobágyi

, Hancock, & Gandevia, 2005 ). Combining MP with afferent stimulation could increase intermanual skill transfer. However, the mechanisms of SES-induced facilitatory effects are poorly understood. Delivering SES to the practicing hand could raise the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) through

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Jason D. Stone, Adam C. King, Shiho Goto, John D. Mata, Joseph Hannon, James C. Garrison, James Bothwell, Andrew R. Jagim, Margaret T. Jones and Jonathan M. Oliver

increasing risk for injury 9 and limiting skill transfer to sport. Previous studies suggest that joint kinetics and kinematics vary at differing loads 10 – 12 and/or positioning 13 , 14 during the performance of the back squat, an important exercise for strength–power athletes. 15 In experienced

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Stefanie Hüttermann, Paul R. Ford, A. Mark Williams, Matyas Varga and Nicholas J. Smeeton

). Orlando, FL : Academic Press . Smeeton , N.J. , Ward , P. , & Williams , A.M. ( 2004 ). Do pattern recognition skills transfer across sports? A preliminary analysis . Journal of Sports Sciences, 22 ( 2 ) , 205 – 213 . PubMed ID: 14998098 doi:10.1080/02640410310001641494 10

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environments; (3) social relationships; (4) individualized instruction; (5) addressing the needs of youth with limited skills; (6) specific coaching techniques such as debriefing; (7) feedback and praise; and (8) booster sessions (i.e., clinics) to foster skill transfer. So what now? Here we will share ways in