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Stephen C. Anderson and Lawrence R. Allen

A 9-week leisure education program to increase activity involvement and social interaction of institutionalized mentally retarded adults was investigated. A disproportional stratified (by residential unit) random sampling technique was employed to select 40 subjects from a total population of 243 mentally retarded persons. Subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The hypotheses were that there would be no significant increase in activity involvement or social interaction of the subjects who participated in the treatment. Four ANCOVAs were conducted utilizing frequency and duration as the dependent variables for both social interaction and activity involvement. Length of institutionalization was the covariate. The grouping variables were treatment/control and level of retardation. The findings revealed the treatment had a significant effect only on frequency of activity involvement.

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Michelle E. Jordan, Kent Lorenz, Michalis Stylianou and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

insight into the social-interactional factors associated with these outcomes. Thus, the purpose of the current study was, first, to explore classroom teachers’ patterns of social interaction related to intervention activities (i.e., social capital) and, second, to investigate relationships between social

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Julie A. Titus and E. Jane Watkinson

This study examined the behavior of moderately mentally handicapped children in integrated and segregated programs. Seven subjects 5 to 10 years of age were observed during free play in two programs, one integrated and one segregated, to determine if they would benefit from placement in physical activity programs with nonhandicapped children. Socialization and activity participation were examined using a simple eight-category instrument on videotaped data. The presence or absence of play vehicles was also investigated to determine whether this play equipment would further affect behavior. Some 300 minutes of videotaped data were available for each subject. Behavior durations were recorded using an OS-3 Event Recorder. Inter-observer agreements were calculated on 15% of the data, with mean agreements of .96. Duration data were transformed to percentage of observable time for each subject in integrated and segregated settings, and when play vehicles were and were not available. Results from the study generally did not support the assumption that exposure to integrated programs will increase activity participation and social interaction. Activity participation did not appear to be affected by the presence of play vehicles in the environment. Social interaction levels were reduced significantly under this condition.

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Luis Miguel Ruiz, Jose Luis Graupera, Juan Antonio Moreno and Isabel Rico

The purpose of the current study was to explore social interaction preferences for learning in Physical Education (PE) among Spanish secondary students. The sample consists of 6,654 students (3,500 girls and 3,154 boys, aged 12–17 years) from public and private urban and rural schools in two communities in Spain. All participants completed the Graupera/Ruiz Scale of Social Interaction Preferences in PE Learning (GR–SIPPEL) which explores four learning preference dimensions: cooperation, competition, affiliation, and individualism. Results indicated that the ordinal profile of students’ preferences in PE classes was: cooperative (very high preference), competitive and affiliate (high-moderate preference), and individualistic (moderate-low preference). Gender differences emerged: girls were less competitive and individualistic than boys, and slightly more cooperative and affiliate. Weak grade level differences were also observed.

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Peggy Hiu Nam Choi and Siu Yin Cheung

The study aimed to investigate the impact of an 8-wk structured physical activity program on selected psychosocial behaviors of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to estimate whether generalization occurred. Thirty children (22 boys, 8 girls) with mild ID took part in the study. The ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between the training group and the control group in emotional self-control mean scores, F(1, 25) = 7.61, p = .011, with the posttest mean score of the training group being better than that of the control group. The correlation analysis showed a medium, positive correlation between the gain scores of emotional self-control in the training context and classroom context of the training group (r = .41, n = 16, p = .12). Hence, generalization appeared to have occurred.

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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

frustration, anger, sadness Anything do not like Social interactions ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Skill-related ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓   Positive emotional impact   ✓ ✓     Positive outcomes   ✓ ✓     Social interactions: Youth cited social interactions across all five developmental opportunities. For example, youth in the SSP group referred

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Shaunna M. Burke, Jennifer Brunet, Amanda Wurz, Christina Butler and Andrea Utley

’ shared experiences of well- and ill-being are presented. Three broad interconnected themes that capture a dichotomy of well- and ill-being experiences were identified: (a) cultivating feelings and emotions, (b) experiencing physical changes, and (c) encountering positive and negative social interactions

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John R. Todorovich

Social constructivists posit that learning involves social interactions among individuals in a given place and time. Since teachers play a significant role in how social interactions are developed and determined in the school classroom, it is important to learn how teachers make decisions about their teaching behaviors and interactions with their students. Because extreme ego orientations have been shown to have a mediating effect on performance behavior in achievement settings, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mediating effect of an extreme ego orientation on preservice teachers’ perspectives on teaching physical education. Data collection consisted of two formal interviews, several informal interviews, and observations of the participants’ teaching. Five themes reflecting the teaching perspectives held by the participants emerged from the data: (a) teachers must maintain control and manage their classes, (b) the best students should be singled out, (c) physical education is an isolated subject area, (c) physical education and athletics are inherently linked, and (d) because only the best can do physical education well, teachers must grade on effort. Findings demonstrate how extreme ego orientations were actualized in preservice teachers’ perspectives of teaching.

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Andrew C. Sparkes and Sarah Partington

Narrative practice is an approach that enables researchers to alternately focus on the whats and hows of meaningful social interaction. The potential benefits of utilizing this approach in sport psychology are highlighted by focusing on the area of flow as an exemplar. It is suggested that the majority of work on flow has focused on the whats rather than on the equally important hows of this phenomenon. To illustrate the ways in which a concern for the hows of narrative practice can provide different insights into flow, data are provided from an interview-based study of a white water canoeing club. The findings suggest that describing flow is a relational performance, which is shaped by a number of narrative resources and auspices that operate differently according to gender.

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Paul M. Wright, Katherine White and Deborah Gaebler-Spira

The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model (PSRM) in an adapted physical activity program. Although the PSRM was developed for use with underserved youth, scholars in the field of adapted physical activity have noted its potential relevance for children with disabilities. Using a collective case study, we explored the relevance and perceived benefits of the PSRM in an adapted martial arts program. Participants were five male children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Data sources included observational field notes, medical records, and interviews with participants’ physicians, therapists, and parents. The following themes were generated from the data: increased sense of ability, positive feelings about the program, positive social interactions, and therapeutic relevance. These results indicate that the PSRM can be made relevant to children with disabilities, especially when coupled with appealing and therapeutically relevant content.