The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable, valid instrument of the sensory experiences of sport attendees. The initial scale development study (N = 263) identified 22-items to represent five dimensions of the sensoryscape. The Sensoryscape scale was confirmed as a reliable scale using CFA. SEM was used in a study of scale validity. The sensoryscape, social interaction, and sense of home each had a positive, direct impact on fans’ satisfaction for both major (N = 259) and minor (N = 218) league venues. Satisfaction with the stadium experience, in turn, had a positive, direct impact on intention to revisit. Similar models were confirmed for both contexts; however the magnitude of effects varied. Implications for sport marketing practice and future research are discussed.
Seunghwan Lee, Hyun Jae Lee, Won Jae Seo and Chris Green
Colin D. McLaren and Kevin S. Spink
Past research in sport has identified a relationship between communication as a social property (i.e., acceptance, distinctiveness, positive conflict, and negative conflict) and task cohesion. Operationalizing communication in this manner is viewing the construct through a social lens. Given that forming task-cohesion perceptions also might be linked to how members exchange information, examining the relationship between communication as information exchange and cohesion appears worthwhile. Results from a hierarchical regression (N = 176) revealed that team member communication as both a social property and information exchange positively predicted perceived task cohesion while controlling for team performance (
James E. Johnson
Integration and consumption of sport are often used to build community identity, enhance health, and promote positive social interactions. Those benefits informed the purpose of this project, which was to integrate service-learning education and behaviors into a graduate sport management leadership course. Project L.E.E.P. (Leadership through Education, Experience, and Photovoice) benefitted local communities by providing an interactive service-learning project that was mutually beneficial to graduate students and surrounding community partners. Eleven graduate students in a sport administration leadership course partnered with different community sport organizations to execute a series of assignments designed to assess, plan, deliver, and reflect on more than 40 hr of sports service. Among those assignments was a photovoice project intended to capture service learning through the students’ perspectives and give voice to the sporting needs of a community. This project aligned with the experiential learning approach in many sport management programs, as well as the societal and service benefits outlined in the North American Society for Sport Management’s purpose and position statements.
Christian von Sikorski and Thomas Schierl
Previous studies have demonstrated that the media, by specifically framing news articles, may systematically affect a nondisabled recipient’s perception of athletes with disabilities (AWDs). However, it remains unclear how specific sports news frames affect a recipient’s quality perception of a journalistic product and if news frames further affect an individual’s postexposure behavior in social interaction with a person with a disability (PWD). To shed some light on these potential news-framing effects, 2 experimental studies (between-subjects designs) were conducted. Study 1 revealed systematic news framing’s effects on recipients’ attitudes toward a depicted AWD and showed effects on a recipient’s perceived quality of a news story. Study 2 further revealed that specific news frames may (automatically) affect a recipient’s behavior (e.g., verbal communication performance, visual attention/ eye contacts) in a subsequent face-to-face social interaction with a PWD. The findings are discussed regarding their implications for the journalistic coverage of disability sports in the media.
Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco, Regina G. Presley and Chelsea C. Police
information processing strategies influence a learner’s ability to perceive, remember, think, and problem solve ( Messick, 1976 ). Claxton and Murrell ( 1987 ) divided learning styles into four categories: personality models, information processing models, social interaction models, and instructional
G. Matthew Robinson, Mitchell J. Neubert and Glenn Miller
experience issues that require action and then reflect on such action ( Johnson & Spicer, 2006 ), thus providing a potential lifelong influence on students’ social interaction skills, awareness of social responsibility issues, and an ability to contribute to others ( Bennett et al., 2003 ). When presenting
Learning Prior to 1995, many social psychologists studying educational contexts did not explore how physical distance can be a moderator of social interaction ( Latane, Lou, Nowak, Bonevento, & Zheng, 1995 ). This omission was flawed; a classroom is a confined space where social actors are consistently
David Pierce and James Johnson
; Lovelock & Gummesson, 2004 ). Delivering consumer and professional services through a variety of social interactions is a commonplace within sport management-related occupations. Within college athletics, the primary driver on the Social environment is the role athletic department employees play in helping
Roger Cooper and Tang Tang
The 2012 Super Bowl was the most-watched television program in U.S. history and represented a wide-scale expansion to online and digital environments. This case study examined the role of gender in explanations for viewing the Super Bowl and for simultaneous media uses during the game. Results indicate that both men and women still relied on the traditional television for Super Bowl viewing. Newer media were used as a second-screen experience to complement the telecast or to gain additional information and social interaction. Gender differences underlie explanations for watching the Super Bowl on television and for simultaneous media uses. Findings suggest that women engaged with nonfootball elements that propel the Super Bowl from a sporting event to a societal event, whereas men indicated stronger interests in the game itself.
Stacy Warner, Jacob K. Tingle and Pamm Kellett
Referees are key sport personnel who have important responsibilities both on- and off- the field. Organized competition would not survive without referees, yet little is known about what cause referees to discontinue in the role. This research examines the experiences of former referees so that managers may better understand strategies that might encourage more referees to be retained. Fifteen previous basketball referees were interviewed about their refereeing experience. Ten themes emerged that were related to the sport development stages of referee recruitment, referee retention, and referee advancement. The results indicate that issues experienced during the retention phase (Problematic Social Interaction, Training/Mentoring, and Lack of Referee Community) and then at the advancing stage (Lack of Administrator Consideration, Administrator Decision Making, and Sport Policies) are linked to eventual departure from the role. Interestingly, off-court factors were reported as more influential in the decision to leave. Managerial strategies and implications are discussed.